Czech Republic

Constitutional Background

The 'Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms' is an integral part of the Constitutional Order, but not yet available on ICL. The Constitutional Court has the power of judicial review. Small minorities of Polish, German, Roma, Hungarian, and Slowakian people are protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms as well as by the 1990 School Law (not yet available on ICL) which provides for education in their mother tongue.

History and News

  • July 1996: General elections bring strong gains of Social Democrats (61 of 200 seats); Vaclav Klaus (Civic Democrats) starts his second term as Prime Minister with a coalition of three conservative parties, altogether only holding 99 seats.
  • 1 Nov 1995: First national strike of doctors seeking a 20% wage rise.
  • Mid-1993: The new Constitutional Court starts its adjudication; far-reaching decisions are the statement about the non-legitimacy of the former communist government on the basis of Radbruch's formula about the relevance of natural law within a legal system.
  • 25 Nov 1992: By law of the federal parliament, the state of Czechoslovakia dissolves into the Czech Republik and Slovakia.
  • 1992: General elections; 105 out of 200 seats go to a conservative coalition under Vaclav Klaus
  • 1989: "The velvet" revolution and the end of communism. 
  • 1968: An attempt to reform socialism followed by the Soviet invasion. 
  • Feb 1948: Communist Coup d'Etat. 
  • 1945: Liberation of Czechoslovakia. 
  • 1939: Occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany. 
  • 1938: The Munich Pact. 
  • 1918: Foundation of Czechoslovakia. 
  • 1764-1790: Germanization at its peak, under the reign of Maria Theresa and Josef II
  • 17-18th cent.: The creation of an original artistic style, the Czech Baroque, which left a unique mark on the look of the Czech Lands. 
  • 1620: Defeat of the Non-Catholic Estates in the Battle of the White Mountain and the beginning of Recatholicization. 
  • 1526: Advent of the Habsburgs to the Czech throne. 
  • 1419-1436: Hussite revolution. 
  • 1415: The death of a Czech religious reformer John Hus (burnt at the stake). 
  • 1348: The foundation of the first University in the Central Europe. 
  • 1346-1378: Climax of the Czech medieval state under Charles IV. 
  • 1253-1278: The rule of Premysl Otakar II, King of Iron and Gold 
  • 1212: The Golden Bull of Sicily - a document which ratified the privileges of Czech Kings and emphasized that Bohemia was not subject to the Holy Roman Empire, but held a place of honour. 
  • 1085: Prince Vratislav II crowned Czech King. 
  • 870-894: Great Moravia began to flourish under Prince Svatopluk
  • 7th cent.A.D.: Prince Samo's Empire was the first Czech state formation.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 27.6.2020 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.