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Russia Index
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Constitutional Background

Russia's declaration of independence dates 24 Aug 1991. The Soviet Union has formally been dissolved by the declaration in Alma Ata on 21 Dec 1991. The new Russian Constitution was adopted 12 Dec 1993 by referendum, but 9 former republics and 10 former regions refused adoption. The Constitution grants sweeping powers to the President, making him the person to name the Government while the Parliament is restricted to participate in setting the national agenda and - most importantly - pass the yearly budget.

History and News

  • 1998: Economic crisis in Russia.
  • 3 July 1996: Yeltsin wins final presidential elections by 54% over 40% for Zyuganov.
  • 28 May 1996: Yeltsin concludes a seconde ceasefile with the new Chechen rebel leader Zelimkhan Yandarbiev. 
  • March 1996: Yeltsin declares a first ceasefire in Chchnya, but secessionists are still killed, among them rebel leader Jokar Dudaev
  • 17 Dec 1995: Second post-communist parliamentary elections. Half of the 450 seats are filled by proportional representation, the others by direct election in single-member constituencies.
  • 3 Nov 1995: Russia's Supreme Court decides - against the electoral commission - that the Yabloko Party may participate in elections even though their listed party candidates significantly changed since registration.
  • 1994: Russia concludes a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU.
  • 12 Dec 1993: New Constitution adopted by public referendum; first multi-party parliamentary elections. 
  • 29 Dec 1990: Adoption of the Law of Enterprises, followed by a number of other laws and presidential and soviet decrees promoting privatization of the economy in the former Soviet Union. 
  • 1867: Abolition of serfdom.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - December 16th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.