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Peru Index
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Constitutional Background

The socialist 1979 Constitution was replaced in 1993. The legislature is now a unicameral National Parliament. 

Since the Spanish conquest, Peru's Indians and creoles are mainly living in the rural uplands and inlands, far from the country's coastal infrastructure.  During 13 years of Shining Path terrorism (1980-1993), some 120,000 peasant families were forced to leave their homes in Peru's central Andes and Amazon regions. They settled on the edges of Lima. In 1993, however, an official program (PAR) was initiated to repatriate those families.

History and News

  • 28 May 2000: Fujimori wins a highly disputed third term as President in a largely bogus election. After irregularities during first-round count, opponent Toledo urges his supporters to write 'No to fraud' on the ballot papers.
  • 5 May 1997: Congress takes a decision allowing to disbar all judges of the Constitutional Court after its ruling that (although a new constitution was adopted in 1993) the 1995 term was Fujimori's second after the 1990 elections, thereby excluding his re-election in 2000.
  • 2 Aug 1996: A new Shining Path guerilla formation, presumably under the leadership of Oscar Ramirez Durand ("Comrade Feliciano"), took over part of the town Aucayacu.
  • 9 April 1995: (Re-)election of Fujimori (64%).
  • 31 Dec 1993: The new Constitution is formally enacted; it establishes a unicameral national legislature in place of the former bicameral National Congress.  More than 50% of the provisions are unchanged from the 1979 constitution.
  • 31 Oct 1993: Peruvian people votes to adopt the new Constitution.
  • Sep 1992: The Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD) approves the text of a new Constitution.
  • April 1992: In a coup, the 1979 Constitution is suspended and the National Congress dissolved by Fujimori.
  • 1992: The Shining Path is largely crushed by Peru's army. Chief Abimael Guzman (called "Presidente Gonzalo" by his followers) was captured and enjailed.
  • 28 July 1990: The new government under President Alberto Kenyo Fujimori starts social, economic, and institutional reforms.
  • 1980: Shining Path terrorism starts.
  • 1979: Following a ten year military dictatorship, the new Constitution (effective in 1980) incorporates fundamental individual rights and provides for a socialist form of government with a rigid social security system.
  • 1978: The military government begins a process of democratization and calls for a Constitutional Assembly.
  • 1968: The new military government starts a series of populist social reforms.
  • 1829: Third Constitution includes social rights.
  • 1821: First (Interim-)Constitution after the declaration of independence (from Spain) on 28. July 1821.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - December 18th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.