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Mongolia Index
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Constitutional Background

Mongolia is sandwiched between Russia and China, burdened with the large Gobi desert and inhabited by only 2.3 million people.  The 1992 Constitution was adopted by the National Parliament of Mongolia on 13 Jan 1992 in the Capital Ulaanbaatar. It is the fourth constitution of the newly democratic country with a multi-party system and entered into force on 12 Feb 1992 (cf. Art. 70).  The First Amendment to the Constitution has been made in May 2001.  The amendment is not yet included in the ICL edition.

An update of the following information was kindly provided by Mr. Gombosurengiin Ganzorig on 15 Nov 2001:

History and News

  • 2001: Natsagiin Bagabandi is for the second time elected as the President of Mongolia.
  • May 2001: First Amendment to the Constitution.
  • 2000: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party wins 72 of 76 seats in parliamentary election.
  • 1998: One of the popular leaders of the Democratic movement, Sanjaasurengiin Zorig, is assassinated.
  • 18 May 1997: Natsagiin Bagabandi wins presidential election. 
  • 30 June 1996: Oppositional 'Democratic Union' wins parliamentary elections (90% turnout) and ends 75 years of unbroken communist rule.
  • 1992: Fourth Mongolian Constitution adopted and constitutional court established; communists win overwhelmingly in first free elections.
  • 1990: Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat is elected as the first President of Mongolia.
  • 1990: First multiparty parliamentary elections.
  • 1960: Third Mongolian Constitution adopted.
  • 1940: Second Mongolian Constitution adopted.
  • 1924: First Mongolian Constitution adopted.
  • 1921: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party is formed and rules the country for about 70 years.
  • 1921: Mongolia declares its independence from China.
  • 1919: China invades Mongolia.
  • 1914: Mongolia is divided on Inner and Outer Mongolia: Inner Mongolia stays independent, Outer Mongolia ruled by China.
  • 1911: Mongolia declares independence from Manchu. Grand Lama Bogd Javzandamba becomes a monarch.
  • 1688: Khalkha  (Mongolia) is subjected to Manchu domination.
  • 1640: Ikh Tsaaz (Grand Code) the ancient Mongolian constitution is written.
  • 1206: Chingis Khaan becomes the Khaan of All Mongols. The Great Mongol Empire is established.
  • 1000-1200: Kitan State conqueres Mongolia.
  • 580: Turkish State rules.
  • 5th century: Jujan State dominates.
  • 4th centuries: Cian-bi State conquered.
  • 3rd century BC-2nd century: First Mongolian dynasty Hunnu State is formed consisting of 24 Hunnu aimags (tribes).

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - December 16th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.