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Andorra Index
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Constitutional Background

Andorra, after 700 years under a French government and a Spanish bishop, acquired independence by referendum (74% yes) and adopted a new Constitution in 1993. Strangely enough, the French President and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell retain the function of Co-Principes and formal heads of state under the new Constitution even though the State became a UN member on its own. Andorrans are a minority in their own state which has about 60% Spanish citizens among its population of about 64,000. However, from those citizens with the right to live and work in Andorra (mostly immigrants fleeing to a country without direct taxes) only 13,000 also have the right to vote.

Andorra's 28 Members of Parliament belong to four parties which are all dominated by the old family clans and hardly differ in political views. After the first direct elections in 1993, a coalition government was formed under Oscar Riba Reig who already headed government since 1989.

History and News

  • Feb 1997: Second elections.
  • 1993: Independence from France, adoption of a new Constitution, and first direct elections.
  • 1992: General Council is dissolved.
  • 1991: Formal links to EU.
  • 1982: Executive Council is appointed to separate executive and legislative powers.
  • 1981: The General Council appoints the first Prime Minister.
  • 1977: Franchise is extended to all first-generation Andorrans.
  • 1976: Formation of the PDA (Democratic Party of Andorra) as the first political party.
  • 1970: Franchise is extended to all third-generation female and second-generation male Andorrans.
  • 1278: A treaty makes the Spanish Bishop and the French Count joint rulers of Andorra. Through marriage, the King of France later inherits the Count's right.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - December 18th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.