Constitutional Background

Croatia's 1990 Constitution, adopted after first democratic elections in 1990, reinforced the countries' will to oppose Serbian attempts of implementing Great Serbia (cf. Articles 135 (7), 140 of the Old Constitution). It marked the beginning of a horrifying war with ethnic cleansing on both sides.  The current Constitution does no longer contain those provisions.

History and News

  • March/April 2001: Parliament amends the constitutinon to abolish the Chamber of Counties, thereby switching from bicameral to unicameral parliamentarism.
  • Nov 2000: Parliament adopts amendment to implement a pure parliamentary system.
  • Feb 2000: Following the death of President Tudjman, presidential elections are won by Stjepan Mesic.
  • 15 June 1997: With 61%, Franjo Tudjman starts another five-year term as President.  The OSCE judges the elections as "below minimum democratic standards" for countries wanting to be members of European institutions.
  • 29 Oct 1995: Tudjman's party HDZ wins early parliamentary elections.
  • 4 Aug 1995: President Franjo Tudjman conducts three-day Blitzkrieg against Krajina Serbs and occupies Krajina region. 150,000 Serb refugees cross the border to Bosnia and Serbia.
  • 1 May 1995: Croatia starts re-occupation of Western Slavonia and establishes its sovereignty in the "Krajina" and the city of Knin.
  • 1992: HDZ wins absolute majority in parlamentary elections required by the new constitution (cf. Article 141 of the Old Constitution).
  • 1991-1995: Serbia occupies one third of Croatia and formes the Republic of Srpska Krajina. They also conquer 70% of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • July 1991: Direct aggression on Croatia starts with emphasis on the town of Vukovar. Croats in Celije, Erdut, Dalj, Aljmas are killed. Vukovar is besieged and Osijek bombarded. The whole Eastern Slavonia is ethnically "cleansed" within three months.
  • 1991: The Serbs in Croatia initiate a rebellion in response to Croatian independence, which in summer 1991 turns into a real lead by the Serbified Yugoslav army.
  • Dec 1990: The first Croatian constitution is adopted.
  • 30 May 1990: The Republic of Croatia is proclaimed.
  • Spring 1990: Croatia holds its first democratic elections and ousts the Communist system; HDZ (Croatian Democratic Party) of Franjo Tudjman wins; Serbia threatens with war.
  • 1989: During the 600th anniversary of the battle of Kosovo celebration, Milosevic announces Serbia's policy of founding Great Serbia against the interest of other republics (Croatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina).
  • 1988: The Serbian communist party under the leadership of Slobodan Milosevic adopts the plan of creating Great Serbia, thereby promoting the break-up of Yugoslavia.
  • 1986: The Serbian Academy of Science creates a memorandum outlining the creation of a Great Serbia.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 27.6.2020 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.