VerfassungsgeschichteVerfassungsvergleichVerfassungsrechtRechtsphilosophie
OverviewCountriesKeysPersonsOrganizationsLinksDownloadSynonyms...

Czech Republic -- Constitution Index Page Document Table of Contents

    { Adopted on: 16 Dec 1992 }
    { Official Title: The Constitution of the Czech Republic }
    { ICL Document Status: 8 March 2012 }

    { Editor's Note:
    The ICL edition is based on the translated version of the Constitution published by the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic. Formulations with "shall" have been changed to ICL translation style. }

 
Preamble
We, the citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, at the time of the restoration of an independent Czech state, faithful to all good traditions of the long-existing statehood of the Czech Crown, as well as of Czechoslovak statehood, resolved to build, safeguard and develop the Czech Republic in the spirit of the sanctity of human dignity and liberty, as the homeland free citizens enjoying equal rights, conscious of their duties towards others and their responsibility towards the community, as a free and democratic state founded on respect for human rights and on the principles of civic society, as part of the family of democracies in Europe and around the world, resolved to guard and develop together the natural and cultural, material and spiritual wealth handed down to us, resolved to abide by all proven principles of a state governed by the rule of law, through our freely elected representatives, do adopt this Constitution of the Czech Republic.
 

Chapter One  Fundamental Provisions

 
Article 1  [State]
(1) The Czech Republic is a sovereign, unitary, and democratic state governed by the rule of law, founded on respect for the rights and freedoms of man and of citizens.
 (2) The Czech Republic observes its obligations resulting from international law.
 
Article 2  [Power]
(1) All state power derives from the people; they exercise this power by means of their legislative, executive, and judicial bodies.
(2) A constitutional law may stipulate the cases when the people exercise state power directly.
(3) The state power serves all citizens and can be exercised only in cases and within the scope stipulated by law, and by means specified by law.
(4) Every citizen may do whatever is not prohibited by law, and no one may be forced to do what the law does not enjoin.
 
Article 3  [Constitutional Order]
Part of the constitutional order of the Czech Republic is the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms.
 
Article 4  [Judiciary's Protection]
The fundamental rights and freedoms enjoy the protection of the Judiciary.
 
Article 5  [Political System]
The political system is based on the free and voluntary foundation and free competition of political parties respecting fundamental democratic principles and rejecting force as a means for asserting their interests.
 
Article 6  [Majority Rule]
Political decisions derive from the will of the majority expressed through free voting.  The decision-making of the majority takes into consideration the interests of minorities..
 
Article 7  [Natural Resources]
The state sees to it that natural resources are used economically and natural wealth is protected.
 
Article 8  [Autonomy]
The right of autonomous territorial units to self- government is guaranteed.
 
Article 9  [Constitutional Laws]
(1) The Constitution may be amended or altered solely by constitutional laws.
(2) Any change of fundamental attributes of the democratic state governed by the rule of law is inadmissible.
(3) Legal norms cannot be interpreted as warranting the removal or threatening of the foundations of the democratic state.
 
Article 10  [Human Rights Treaties]
Promulgated treaties, to the ratification of which Parliament has given its consent and by which the Czech Republic is bound, form a part of the legal order; if a treaty provides something other than that which a law provides, the treaty applies.
 
Article 10a  [Transfer of Powers]
(1) Certain powers of Czech Republic authorities may be transferred by treaty to an international organization or institution.
(2) The ratification of a treaty under paragraph 1 requires the consent of Parliament, unless a constitutional act provides that such ratification requires the approval obtained in a referendum.
 
Article 10b [Membership in International Organizations]
(1) The government informs the Parliament, regularly and in advance, on issues connected to obligations resulting from the Czech Republic's membership in an international organization or institution.
(2) The chambers of Parliament give their views on prepared decisions of such international organization or institution in the manner laid down in their standing orders.
(3) A law governing the principles of dealings and relations between both chambers, as well as externally, may entrust the exercise of the chambers' competence pursuant to paragraph 2 to a body common to both chambers.
 
Article 11  [Territory]
The territory of the Czech Republic encompasses an indivisible whole whose state border may be altered exclusively by constitutional laws.
 
Article 12  [Citizenship]
(1) Procedures binding for the acquisition and loss of Czech citizenship are stipulated by law.
(2) No one can be deprived of his or her citizenship against his or her will.
 
Article 13  [Capital]
The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague.
 
Article 14  [State Symbols]
(1) The State Symbols of the Czech Republic are the Large and Small State Emblems, the State Colors, the State Flag, the Banner of the President of the Republic, the State Seal, and the State Anthem.
(2) The state symbols and their use are determined by law.
 

Chapter Two  Legislative Power

 
Article 15  [Parliament]
(1) Legislative power in the Czech Republic is vested in Parliament.
(2) Parliament is composed of two Chambers, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
 
Article 16  [Chambers]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies has 200 deputies, elected for a term of four years.
(2) The Senate has 81 Senators, elected for a term of six years.  One third of the Senators is elected every second year.
 
Article 17  [Elections]
(1) Elections to both Chambers are held in a period of time starting the thirtieth day before the expiration of the electoral term and ending on the day of its expiration.
(2) If the Chamber of Deputies is dissolved, elections take place within sixty days of its dissolution.
 
Article 18  [Suffrage]
(1) Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot, according to the principles of proportional representation.
(2) Elections to the Senate take place on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot, on the basis of the majority system.
(3) Every citizen of the Czech Republic, on reaching the age of eighteen has the right to vote.
 
Article 19  [Eligibility]
(1) Every citizen of the Czech Republic who is eligible to vote and has reached the age of 21 may be elected to the Chamber of Deputies.
(2) Every citizen who is eligible to vote and has reached the age of 40 may be elected to the Senate.
(3) The mandate of a Deputy or a Senator is effective upon his or her election.
 
Article 20  [Conditions]
Additional conditions for the exercise of suffrage, the organization of elections, and the scope of judicial review are stipulated by law.
 
Article 21  [Chamber Incompatibility]
No one may simultaneously be a member of both Chambers of Parliament.
 
Article 22  [Incompatibilities]
(1) The exercise of the office of the President of the Republic, the office of judges, and other functions, set forth by law, are incompatible with the post of Deputy or Senator.
(2) A Deputy's or a Senator's mandate expires the day he or she enters upon the office of the President of the Republic, or the day he or she assumes a judgeship or another post incompatible with the post of Deputy or Senator.
 
Article 23  [Oaths]
(1) A Deputy takes the oath at the first session of the Chamber of Deputies which he or she attends.
(2) A Senator takes the oath at the first session of the Senate which he or she attends.
(3) The oath of a Deputy or a Senator is worded as follows:
"I pledge allegiance to the Czech Republic.  I pledge to uphold its Constitution and laws.  I pledge on my honor to exercise my mandate in the interest of the people and in accordance with my best conviction and conscience."
 
Article 24  [Resignation]
A Deputy or a Senator may surrender his or her mandate by a declaration made personally at a session of the Chamber of which he or she is a member.  If he or she is prevented from doing so by serious circumstances, he or she may do so by a method set forth by law.
 
Article 25  [Expiration]
A Deputy's or a Senator's mandate expires upon
a) refusing to take the oath or taking the oath with reservations,
b) the expiration of the term of office,
c) his resignation,
d) the loss of his eligibility to hold office,
e) the dissolution of the Chamber of Deputies, in the case of deputies,
f) the incompatibility of the functions specified in Article 22.
 
Article 26  [Independence]
Deputies and Senators exercise their mandates personally in accordance with their oath and may not be bound by any directions.
 
Article 27  [Indemnity, Immunity]
(1) A Deputy or a Senator may not be prosecuted for voting in the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate or their bodies.
(2) A Deputy or a Senator may not be prosecuted for statements made in the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate or their bodies.  A Deputy or a Senator is only accountable to the disciplinary authority of the Chamber of which he or she is a member.
(3) A Deputy or a Senator is accountable for his or her misdemeanor only to the disciplinary authority of the Chamber of which he or she is a member, unless determined otherwise by law.
(4) A Deputy or a Senator may not be criminally prosecuted without consent of the Chamber of which he or she is a member.  If the respective Chamber declines its consent, criminal proceedings are rendered impossible forever.
(5) A Deputy or a Senator may be taken into custody only if caught while committing a criminal offence or immediately thereafter.  The responsible body is obliged to immediately notify of the detention the Chairman of the Chamber of which the detainee is a member; if the Chamber's Chairman fails to give his or her consent to handing the detainee over to court within 24 hours of the detention, the responsible body is obliged to set him or her free.  The Chamber decides with final authority about the admissibility of the prosecution at its first following session.
 
Article 28  [Secrecy]
A Deputy or a Senator is entitled to withhold testimony about matters of which he or she learned in connection with the exercise of his or her mandate, even after he or she has ceased to be a Deputy or a Senator.
 
Article 29  [Chairmen]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies elects and dismisses the Chairman and Vice Chairmen of the Chamber of Deputies.
(2) The Senate elects and dismisses the Chairman and Vice Chairmen of the Senate.
 
Article 30  [Investigatory Commission]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies may set up an investigatory commission for the investigation of an affair of public interest if this is suggested by at last one fifth of deputies.
(2) Proceedings before the commission are determined by law.
 
Article 31  [Committees]
(1) The Chambers establish committees and commissions as their bodies.
(2) The activities of committees and commissions are determined by law.
 
Article 32  [Governmental Incompatibility]
A Deputy or a Senator who is a member of the Government may not be the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate, or a member of Parliamentary committees, investigatory commission, or commissions.
 
Article 33  [Legislation]
(1) If the Chamber of Deputies is dissolved, the Senate is responsible for adopting legislative measures in matters which cannot be postponed and which would otherwise require the adoption of a law.
(2) The Senate, however, cannot adopt legislative measures on matters of the Constitution, the state budget, the state annual account, the election law, and international agreements according to Article 10.
(3) Only the Government may propose such legislative measures to the Senate.
(4) The Chairman of the Senate, the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister sign legislative measures of the Senate; these measures are promulgated like laws.
(5) A legislative measure of the Senate must be approved by the Chamber of Deputies at its first session.  If the Chamber of Deputies does not approve it, the measure loses further validity.
 
Article 34  [Sessions]
(1) The Chambers are continually in session.  A session of the Chamber of Deputies is called by the President of the Republic so that it be started no later than the thirtieth day after the election day.  If he fails to do so, the Chamber of Deputies meets on the thirtieth day after the election day.
(2) A session of a Chamber may be adjourned by resolution.  The total period for which a session may be adjourned may not exceed 120 days in one year.
(3) During the period of adjournment, the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies or of the Senate may convene a session of the respective Chamber before the scheduled date.  He must always do so if requested by the President of the Republic, the Government or at least one fifth of deputies of the respective Chamber.
(4) A session of the Chamber of Deputies ends with the expiration of its election term or with its dissolution.
 
Article 35  [Dissolution]
(1) The President of the Republic can dissolve the Chamber of Deputies if:
a) the Chamber of Deputies passes a vote of non-confidence in a newly appointed Government whose Prime Minister was appointed by the President of the Republic on the suggestion of the chairman of the Chamber of Deputies,
b) the Chamber of Deputies fails to decide within three months on a Government bill with the discussion of which the Government links the question of confidence,
c) a session of the Chamber of Deputies is adjourned for a longer period than admissible,
d) the Chamber of Deputies has not reached a quorum for a period longer than three months, although its session was not adjourned and although it was repeatedly called to session during this period.
(2) The Chamber of Deputies cannot be dissolved three months before the expiration of its election term.
 
Article 36  [Publicity]
Sessions of both chambers are open to public.  The public can be excluded solely under conditions stipulated by law.
 
Article 37  [Joint Sessions]
(1) A joint session of both Chambers is called by the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies.
(2) The proceedings of a joint session of both Chambers are governed by the rules of procedure of the Chamber of Deputies.
 
Article 38  [Government Attendance]
(1) A member of the Government has the right to attend sessions of both Chambers, their committees, and commissions.  He is given the floor any time he requests it.
(2) A member of the Government is obliged to attend personally a session of the Chamber of Deputies upon the basis of its resolution.  This also applies to a session of a committee, commission, or investigatory commission, where, however, a member of the Government may have himself be represented by his deputy or any other member of the cabinet, if his or her personal presence is not expressly requested.
 
Article 39  [Quorum, Majorities]
(1) The Chambers constitute a quorum if at least one third of their members are present.
(2) The passage of a resolution of the respective Chamber requires consent of a simple majority of deputies or Senators present, if not prescribed otherwise by the Constitution.
(3) The concurrence of an absolute majority of all Deputies and an absolute majority of all Senators is required for the adoption of a resolution declaring a state of war or a resolution granting assent to sending the armed forces of the Czech Republic outside the territory of the Czech Republic or the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Czech Republic, as well as with the adoption of a resolution concerning the Czech Republic's participation in the defensive systems of an international organization of which the Czech Republic is a member.
(4) The concurrence of three-fifths of all Deputies and three-fifths of all Senators present is required for the adoption of a constitutional act or for giving assent to the ratification of treaties referred to in Article 10a I.
 
Article 40  [Election and Procedure Laws]
The passage of an election law and the legislation on the principles of deliberations and contacts between both Chambers as well as external contacts, and the law on the rules of procedure of the Senate necessitates its approval by both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
 
Article 41  [Initiative]
(1) Draft laws are submitted to the Chamber of Deputies.
(2) A draft law may be submitted by deputies, groups of deputies, the Senate, the Government, and representatives of a higher territorial self-governing entity.
 
Article 42  [Budget]
(1) A draft law on the state budget and a draft state annual account are presented by the Government.
(2) These draft proposals are discussed and decided on only by the Chamber of Deputies at a public session.
 
Article 43  [War]
(1) Parliament decides on a declaration of the state of war in the event that the Czech Republic is attacked or if it is necessary to meet international treaty obligations concerning joint defense against aggression.
(2) The Parliament decides on the the Czech Republic's participation in defensive systems of an international organization of which the Czech Republic is a member.
(3) The Parliament gives its consent to
a) the sending the armed forces of the Czech Republic outside the territory of the Czech Republic;
b) the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Czech Republic, unless such decisions are reserved to the government.
(4) The government may decide to send the armed forces of the Czech Republic outside the territory of the Czech Republic and to allow the stationing of the armed forces of other states within the territory of the Czech Republic for a period not exceeding 60 days, in matters concerning the
a) the fulfillment of obligations pursuant to treaties on collective self-defense against aggression,
b) participation in peace-keeping operations pursuant to the decision of an international organization of which the Czech Republic is a member, if the receiving state consents;
c) participation in rescue operations in cases of natural catastrophe, industrial or ecological accidents.
(5) The government may also decide:
a) on the transfer of the armed forces of other states across the territory of the Czech Republic and on their overflight over the territory of the Czech Republic.
b) on the participation of the armed forces of the Czech Republic in military exercises outside the territory of the Czech Republic and on the participation of the armed forces of other states in military exercises within the territory of the Czech Republic.
(6) Without delay the government informs both chambers of Parliament concerning any decisions it makes pursuant to paras. 4 and 5. The Parliament may annul the government's decisions; in order to annul such decisions of the government, the disapproving resolution of one of the chambers, adopted by an absolute majority of all its members, suffices.
 
Article 44  [Deliberation]
(1) The Government has the right to comment on all draft laws.
(2) If the Government fails to express its opinion within thirty days of the delivery of a draft law, it is assumed that it has expressed itself positively.
(3) The Government has the right to demand that the Chamber of Deputies complete discussing a Government draft law within three months of its submission, as long as the Government links with it a request for a vote of confidence.
 
Article 45  [Approval to Senate]
The Chamber of Deputies advances a draft law which it has approved to the Senate without unnecessary delay.
 
Article 46  [Resolution of Senate]
(1) The Senate discusses a draft law and decide upon it within a period of thirty days of its advancement.
(2) With its resolution, the Senate approves the draft law or turns it down, or returns it to the Chamber of Deputies with draft amendments, or expresses its intention not to concern itself with it.
(3) If the Senate fails to express its resolution in a time limit given in Paragraph (1), it is assumed that the draft law was passed.
 
Article 47  [Rejection by Senate]
(1) If the Senate rejects a draft law, the Chamber of Deputies votes on it again.  A draft law is passed if it is approved by an absolute majority of all deputies.
(2) If the Senate returns a draft law to the Chamber of Deputies with draft amendments, the Chamber of Deputies votes on the wording approved by the Senate.  With its resolution, the draft law is passed.
(3) If the Chamber of Deputies fails to pass a draft law in the wording approved by the Senate, it votes once again on the version of the draft law advanced to the Senate.  A draft law is passed if it is approved by an absolute majority of all deputies.
(4) In discussion of a rejected or returned draft law in the Chamber of Deputies draft amendments are inadmissible.
 
Article 48  [Inactivity]
If the Senate expresses its intention not to concern itself with a draft law, it is passed with this declaration.
 
Article 49  [International Accords]
The assent of both chambers of Parliament is required for the ratification of treaties:
a) affecting the rights or duties of persons;
b) of alliance, peace, or other political nature;
c) by which the Czech Republic becomes a member of an international organization;
d) of a general economic nature;
e) concerning additional matters, the regulation of which is reserved to law.
 
Article 50  [Rejection by President]
(1) The President of the Republic has the right to return an adopted law, except a constitutional law, giving explanation, within fifteen days of the day of its advancement.
(2) The Chamber of Deputies votes on the rejected law once again.  Draft amendments are inadmissible.  If the Chamber of Deputies re-approves the returned law by an absolute majority of all deputies, the law is promulgated.  Otherwise it is assumed that the law was not passed.
 
Article 51  [Signatures]
Adopted laws are signed by the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies, the President of the Republic, and the Prime Minister.
 
Article 52  [Promulgation]
(1) In order for a law to be valid, it must be promulgated. 
(2) The manner in which laws and treaties are to be promulgated is provided for by law.
 
Article 53  [Interpellation]
(1) Every Deputy has the right to interpellate the Government or its members in matters falling under their jurisdiction.
(2) Interpellated members of Government are obliged to respond to the interpellation within a period of thirty days from the day of its notification.
 

Chapter Three  Executive Power

 

[Part 1]  The President of the Republic

 
Article 54  [Head of State]
(1) The President of the Republic is the Head of State.
(2) The President of the Republic is elected directly in a national popular vote.
(3) The President of the Republic is not accountable for the performance of his duties.
 
Article 55  [Oath, Term]
The President of the Republic enters upon his office by taking an oath.  The term of office of the President of the Republic is five years and begins on the day of taking the oath.
 
Article 56  [Election]
(1) The election of President is held in the form of a secret ballot based on the general, equal and direct voting right. 
(2) The candidate having received more than a half majority of valid votes of rightful voters is elected for the office of the President of the Republic. In the event of absence of such a candidate a second electoral round should be held 14 days after commencement of the first electoral round which the two most successful candidates from the first electoral round proceed onto. Should the candidates receive equal number of votes, all candidates having received the plurality of votes of rightful voters proceed onto the second electoral round and should there not be at least two such candidates, also candidates having received the second highest number of votes of rightful voters proceed onto the second electoral round. 
(3) The candidate having received the plurality of votes of rightful voters in the second round of the election. Are there more such candidates, the President of the Republic is not elected and a new election of President of the Republic is held within 10 days.
(4) If the candidate who proceeded onto the second round of the election cease to be eligible for office of the President of the Republic or isf such candidate waives his right to stand as a candidate for the office of the President of the Republic, the candidate having received the subsequent highest number of votes of rightful voters in the first electoral round proceeds onto the second round of the election. The second round of election is held even if there is only one candidate who proceeds onto the second electoral round.
(5) Each and every citizen of the Czech Republic who has reached the age of 18 years is entitled to nominate a candidate provided that such a nomination is supported by a petition signed by at least 50.000 citizens of the Czech Republic who are entitled to vote for the President of the Republic. A candidate can be nominated by at least twenty Deputies of the Parliament or by at least ten Senators.
(6) Every citizen of the Czech Republic having reached the age of 18 has the right to vote.
(7) Presidential election takes place within the last sixty days of the office of the incumbent President, however, 30 days prior to the expiration of the term of the office of the incumbent President of the Republic. If the office of the President becomes vacant, the election of the President is held within ninety days.
(8) The election of the President is announced by the President of the Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic ninety days prior to holding the election at the latest. Should the office of the President become vacant, the President of the Senate of the Czech Republic announces the election of the President ten days prior to holding such election at the latest and simultaneously eighty days prior to holding such election.
(9) Should the office of the President of the Senate be vacant, the election of the President is announced by the Chairperson of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament.]
 
Article 57  [Eligibility]
(1) A citizen eligible to the Senate may be elected President of the Republic.
(2) No one can be elected for more than two consecutive terms of office.
 
Article 58  [Details of the Process]
Further conditions of the exercise of the right to vote in the election of the President equally as the details of the process of proposing of the presidential candidates for the office of the President of the Republic, the announcement and implementation of the election and the announcement of the outcome of the election and the judicial review are stipulated by the Law.
 
Article 59  [Oath]
(1) The Chairman of the Senate of the Parliament administers the oath of office to the President-elect at a joint meeting of both chambers.
(2) The President's oath has the following wording:
"I pledge allegiance to the Czech Republic.  I pledge to uphold its Constitution and laws.  I pledge on my honor to discharge my office in the interest of the people and in accordance with my best conviction and conscience."
 
Article 60  [No Reservations]
If the President of the Republic refuses to take the oath or if he takes it with reservations, he is considered not to have been elected.
 
Article 61  [Resignation]
The President of the Republic may surrender his office into the hands of the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies.
 
Article 62  [Functions]
The President of the Republic:
a) appoints and recalls the Prime Minister and other members of the government and accepts their resignations, recalls the government and accepts its resignation;
b) convenes sessions of the Assembly of Deputies;
c) may dissolve the Assembly of Deputies;
d) entrusts the government whose resignation he has accepted, or which he has recalled, with the temporary performance of its duties until a new government is appointed;
e) appoints Justices of the Constitutional Court, its Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons;
f) appoints from among judges the Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons of the Supreme Court;
g) may grant pardons or commute sentences imposed by courts and order that a criminal record be expunged;
h) has the right to return to Parliament acts it has adopted, with the exception of constitutional acts;
i) signs laws,
j) appoints the President and Vice-President of the Supreme Auditing Office;
k) appoints members of the Banking Council of the Czech National Bank.]

 
Article 63  [Powers]
(1) In addition, the President of the Republic:
a) represents the state externally;
b) negotiates and ratifies international treaties; she may delegate the negotiation of international treaties to the government or, with its consent, to individual members thereof;
c) is the supreme commander of the armed forces;
d) receives heads of diplomatic missions;
e) accredits and recalls heads of diplomatic missions;
f) calls elections to the Assembly of Deputies and the Senate;
g) commissions and promotes generals;
h) may grant and award state honors, unless she has empowered some other body to do so;
i) appoints judges;
j) orders that the criminal proceedings not be instituted or if it has been instituted, that it be discontinued;
k) has the right to issue amnesties.
(2) The President of the Republic also possesses powers which are not explicitly enumerated in constitutional acts if a law so provides.
(3) In order to be valid, decisions of the President of the Republic issued pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 require the countersignature of the Prime Minister or a member of the government designated by him.
(4) The government is responsible for the decisions of the President of the Republic that require the countersignature of the Prime Minister or a member of the government designated by him.]
 
Article 64  [Attendance]
(1) The President of the Republic has the right to take part in sessions of both Chambers of Parliament, their committees, and commissions.  He is given the floor any time he requests it.
(2) The President of the Republic has the right to take part in sessions of the Government, request reports from the Government and its members and discuss with the Government or with its members issues falling under their jurisdiction.
 
Article 65  [Immunity]
(1) The President of the Republic may not be taken into detention, criminally prosecuted, nor prosecuted for misdemeanors or other administrative offense while in her office.
(2) The Senate of the Parliament may with the Consent of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament lodge a constitutional charge against the President of the Republic for high treason, gross violation of the Constitution or other segment of the constitutional order before the Constitutional Court; treason is deemed to mean any conduct of the President of the Republic directed against the sovereignty and integrality of the Republic as well as against the democratic order of the republic. Based on the constitutional action the Constitutional Court may hold that the President loses the Presidency office and any further eligibility for the office..
(3) For the Senate to admit the proposal for constitutional action the consent of three-thirds majority of the votes of the present senators is required. For the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament to issue the consent with the filing of constitutional action a three-thirds majority of the votes of all senators is required: should the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament fail to grant the consent within three months from the day when the Senate seeks the consent the consent is deemed withheld.
 
Article 66  [Vacancy]
If the office of the Presidency becomes vacant and before a new President of the Republic has been elected or has taken the oath of office, likewise if the President of the Republic is, for serious reasons, incapable of performing his duties and if the Assembly of Deputies and the Senate adopt a resolution to this effect, the performance of the presidential duties under Article 63 I, letters a) to e) and h) to k), and Article 63 II devolves upon the Prime Minister. In any period in which the Prime Minister is performing the above-specified presidential duties, the performance of the duties under Article 62 letters a) to e) and k) and further Article 63 I letter f) if the announcement of the election for the Senate is concerned devolves upon the Chairperson of the Assembly of Deputies; if the office of the Presidency becomes vacant during a period in which the Assembly of Deputies is dissolved, the performance of these functions devolves upon the Chairperson of the Senate who is also in charge of the office of the Presidency at the time when the Prime Minister is in charge of the designated functions of the President of the Republic pursuant to Article 63 I letter f), if the announcement of the election for the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament is concerned.
 

[Part 2]  The Government

 
Article 67  [Executive Power]
(1) The Government is the supreme body of executive power.
(2) The Government is composed of the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Ministers, and the Ministers.
 
Article 68  [Appointment]
(1) The Government is accountable to the Chamber of Deputies.
(2) The President of the Republic appoints the Premier and, on his suggestion, appoints other members of the Government and entrusts them with managing the ministries or other bodies.
(3) The Government appears before the Chamber of Deputies within thirty days of its appointment and request of it a vote of confidence.
(4) If the newly appointed Government fails to obtain the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies, the procedure advances in accordance with Paragraphs 2 and 3.  If even the Government, appointed in this way, fails to obtain the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister upon the suggestion of the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies.
(5) In other cases, the President of the Republic appoints and dismisses, upon the suggestion of the Prime Minister, other members of the cabinet and entrusts them with managing the ministries or other bodies.
 
Article 69  [Oath]
(1) A member of the Government swears in before the President of the Republic.
(2) The oath of a member of the Government has the following wording:
"I pledge allegiance to the Czech Republic.  I pledge to uphold its Constitution and laws and introduce them into lite.  I pledge on my honor that I will conscientiously hold my office and will not abuse my position."
 
Article 70  [Incompatibility]
A member of the Government must not pursue activities whose nature is in conflict with the exercise of his function.  Details are stipulated by law.
 
Article 71 [Vote of Confidence]
The Government is entitled to submit to the Chamber of Deputies a request for a vote of confidence.
 
Article 72  [Confidence Initiative]
(1) The Chamber of Deputies may pass a vote of no confidence inthe Government.
(2) The Chamber of Deputies discusses a proposal for a vote of no confidence in the Government only if it is submitted in writing by no less than 50 deputies.  Passing the proposal requires the consent of an absolute majority of all deputies.
 
Article 73  [Resignation]
(1) The Prime Minister offers his resignation to the President of the Republic.  Other members of the Government offer their resignations to the President of the Republic through the Prime Minister.
(2) The Government offers its resignation if the Chamber of Deputies rejects its request for a vote of confidence or if it passes a vote of no confidence.  The Government always offers its resignation after the constituent session of a newly elected Chamber of Deputies.
(3) If the Government offers its resignation according to Paragraph 2, the President of the Republic must accept it.
 
Article 74  [Dismissal of Ministers]
The President of the Republic dismisses a Member of the Government, if this is proposed by the Prime Minsiter.
 
Article 75  [Dismissal of Government]
The President of the Republic dismisses a Government which did not offer its resignation although it was obliged to offer it.
 
Article 76  [Resolutions]
(1) The Government makes decisions as a body.
(2) The passage of a resolution of the Government requires the consent of an absolute majority of all its members.
 
Article 77  [Premier]
(1) The Prime Minister organizes the activities of the Government, chairs its meetings, acts in its name, and executes further activities entrusted to him by the Constitution or by other laws.
(2) The Prime Minister is represented by a Deputy Premier or another authorized member of the Government.
 
Article 78  [Decrees]
For the execution of a law and within its limits, the Government is entitled to issue decrees.  Decrees are signed by the Prime Minister and a respective member of the Government.
 
Article 79  [Regulations]
(1) Ministries and other administrative bodies can be established and their powers defined only by law.
(2) The legal relations of state employees in the ministries and other administrative bodies are determined by law.
(3) The ministries, other administrative offices, and bodies of territorial self-administration may issue legal regulations on the basis of and within the limits of law, if authorized so by law.
 
Article 80  [Public Prosecutor's Office]
(1) A Public Prosecutor's office represents public prosecution in criminal proceedings; it also executes other tasks, if the law so stipulates.
(2) The status and jurisdiction of the Public Prosecutor's office are defined by law.
 

Chapter Four  Judicial Power

 

[Part 1  General Provisions]

 
Article 81  [Independent Courts]
Judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Republic.
 
Article 82  [Judges]
(1) Judges are independent in the execution of their function.  Their impartiality must not be threatened by anyone.
(2) A judge cannot be dismissed or transferred to another court against his or her will; exceptions, primarily in disciplinary responsibility, are stipulated by law.
(3) The discharge of the function of a judge is incompatible with the office of the President of the Republic, member of Parliament, or any other function in public administration; other activities incompatible with the discharge of the function of a judge are determined by law.
 

[Part 2]  Constitutional Court

 
Article 83  [Function]
The Constitutional Court is a judicial body responsible for the protection of constitutionality.
 
Article 84  [Composition]
(1) The Constitutional Court is composed of 15 judges appointed for a term of ten years.
(2) The judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the President of the Republic with the consent of the Senate.
(3) Any citizen of integrity, eligible for election to the Senate, having a university education in law and at least ten years of experience in legal profession may be appointed a judge of the Constitutional Court.
 
Article 85  [Oath]
(1) A judge of the Constitutional Court assumes his or her function upon taking an oath before the President of the Republic.
(2) A judge of the Constitutional Court takes the following oath:
"I pledge on my honor and conscience that I will protect the inviolability of the natural rights of the individual and the rights of any citizen, abide by constitutional laws, and make decisions according to my best conviction, independently, and impartially."
(3) If a judge refuses to take the oath or if he or she takes it with reservations, he or she is regarded as not appointed.
 
Article 86  [Immunity]
(1) A judge of the Constitutional Court cannot be criminally prosecuted without the consent of the Senate.  If the Senate declines to give its consent, criminal prosecution is rendered impossible forever.
(2) A judge of the Constitutional Court may be detained only if caught while committing a criminal act or immediately thereafter.  The respective authority is obliged to immediately notify the Chairman of the Senate of the detention.  If the Chairman or the Senate fails to give his consent to passing the detainee to court within 24 hours, the respective authority is obliged to release him.  The Senate makes a definitive decision about whether or not criminal prosecution is admissible at its first following session.
(3) A judge of the Constitutional Court has the right to deny testimony on matters about which he or she learnt while discharging his or her function, and this privilege continues in effect even after he or she has ceased to be a judge of the Constitutional Court.
 
Article 87  [Competences]
(2) Prior to the ratification of a treaty under Article 10a or Article 49, the Constitutional Court may further have jurisdiction to decide concerning the treaty's conformity with the constitutional order. A treaty may not be ratified prior to the Constitutional Court giving judgment.
 
(3) An law may provide that, in place of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Administrative Court has jurisdiction:
a) to annul legal enactments other than laws or individual provisions thereof if they are inconsistent with a law;
b) to decide jurisdictional disputes between state bodies and bodies of self-governing regions, unless that power is given by law to another body.
 
Article 88  [Initiative, Independence]
(1) The law specifies who and under what conditions is entitled to table a proposal to initiate proceedings and other rules on proceedings before the Constitutional Court.
(2) In decision-making, judges of the Constitutional Court are bound only by constitutional order and by laws under Paragraph 1.
 
Article 89  [Binding Effect]
(1) A decision of the Constitutional Court becomes executable as soon as it is promulgated in the manner determined by law if the Constitutional Court did not decide about its execution otherwise.
(2) Executable decisions of the Constitutional Court are binding for all bodies and persons.
(3) Decisions of the Constitutional Court which declare, pursuant to Article 87 II, that a treaty is not in conformity with the constitutional order, are an obstacle to the ratification of the treaty until such time as they are brought into conformity with each other.
 

[Part 3]  Courts

 
Article 90  [Purpose]
The task of courts is above all to provide protection to rights in the manner determined by law.  Only a court can decide on the guilt and penalty for criminal acts.
 
Article 91  [Court Hierarchy]
(1) The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, high, regional, and district courts.  Legislation may determine other terms for them.
(2) The jurisdiction and organization of courts is stipulated by law.
 
Article 92  [Highest Court]
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in matters falling under the jurisdiction of courts with the exception of matters decided by the Constitutional Court or the Supreme Administrative Court.
 
Article 93  [Appointment of Judges]
(1) Judges are appointed by the President of the Republic for an unlimited term.  They assume the office on taking an oath.
(2) Any citizen of integrity, having a university education in law, can be appointed judge.  Other requirements and procedures are stipulated by law.
 
Article 94  [Bench]
(1) The law stipulates cases in which judges decide as a bench and the composition of the bench.  In other cases they decide as single judges.
(2) The law may stipulate in which matters and in what manner other citizens, in addition to judges, participate in court decision-making.
 
Article 95  [Courts Bound By Law]
(1) In decision-making, judges are bound by statuses and treatis which form a part of the legal order; they are entitled to judge congruency of another legal regulation with the law.
(2) If a court arrives at the conclusion that a law which is to be applied in decision-making is in contradiction with a constitutional act, it passes the matter to the Constitutional Court.
 
Article 96  [Equality Before Court, Publicity]
(1) All parties in legal proceedings have equal rights before the court.
(2) Proceedings in the court are verbal and open to public; exceptions are specified by law.  The verdict of the court is always publicly declared.
 

Chapter Five  The Supreme Inspection Office

 
Article 97  [Supreme Inspection Office]
(1) The Supreme Inspection Office is an independent body.  It executes inspection of the management of state property and the fulfillment of the state budget.
(2) The President and Vice President of the Supreme Inspection Office are appointed by the President of the Republic upon the suggestion of the Chamber of Deputies.
(3) The status, jurisdiction, organizational structure and other details are set down by law.
 

Chapter Six  The Czech National Bank

 
Article 98  [Czech National Bank]
(1) The Czech National Bank is the central bank of the State.  Its activities are primarily oriented towards currency stability; it is possible to interfere with its activities exclusively on the basis of law.
(2) The status, jurisdiction, and other details are set down by law.
 

Chapter Seven  Territorial Self-Administration

 
Article 99  [Lands, Regions, Municipalities]
The Czech Republic is divided into municipalities which are the basic units of territorial self-administration.  Higher units of territorial self-administration are lands and regions.
 
Article 100  [Right to Self-Administration]
(1) The units of territorial self-administration are territorial communities of citizens, which have the right to self-administration.  The law determines when they are administrative districts.
(2) A municipality is always part of a higher unit of territorial self-administration.
(3) A higher unit of territorial self-administration may be established or dissolved solely by a constitutional law.
 
Article 101  [Board of Representatives]
(1) A municipality is independently administrated by a board of representatives.
(2) A higher unit of territorial self-administration is independently administrated by a board of representatives.
(3) Units of territorial self-administration are public law corporations which may have their own property and may engage in management according to their own budgets.
(4) The state may interfere in the activities of units of territorial self-administration only if it is necessary for the protection of law and solely by means specified by law.
 
Article 102  [Elections]
(1) Members of representative bodies are elected by secret ballot on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage.
(2) The term of office of representative bodies is four years.  The law stipulates under what conditions new elections to the board of representatives are called before the expiration of its term of office.
 
Article 103 

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - December 2nd, 2012 / Thanks to F. Herger. / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.