VerfassungsgeschichteVerfassungsvergleichVerfassungsrechtRechtsphilosophie
OverviewCountriesKeysPersonsOrganizationsLinksDownloadSynonyms...

Tanzania Constitution Index Page Document Table of Contents

    { Official Title: Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania }
    { Adopted on: 25 April 1977}
    { ICL Document Status: 30 June 1995 }

    { Editor's Note:
    This Edition of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1997, incorporates and consolidates all amendments to the Constitution up to 30 June 1995. }

 
Preamble
Whereas we, the people of the United Republic of Tanzania, have firmly and solemnly resolved to build in our country a society fraternity on the principles of freedom, justice, founded and concord:
And whereas those principles can only be realised in a democratic society in which the Executive is accountable to a Legislature composed of elected members and representative of the people, and also a Judiciary which is independent and dispenses justice without fear or favour, thereby ensuring that all human rights are preserved and protected and that the duties of every person are faithfully discharged:
Nom, therefore, this constitutions is enacted by the constituent assembly of the united republic of tanzania, on behalf of the People, for the purpose of building such a society and ensuring that Tanzania is governed by a Government that adheres to the principles of democracy and socialism.
 

Chapter I  The United Republic, Political Parties, the People and the Policy of Socialism and Selfreliance

 

Part I  The United Republic and the People

 
Article 1  []
Tanzania is one State and is a sovereign United Republic.
 
Article 2  []
(1) The territory of the United Republic consists of the whole of the area of Mainland Tanzania and the whole of the area of Tanzania Zanzibar, and includes the territorial waters.
(2) For the purpose of the efficient discharge of the functions of the Government of the United Republic or of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, the President may, in
accordance with the procedures prescribed by law or provisions of such law as may be enacted by Parliament divide the United Republic into regions, districts and other areas:
Provided that the President shall first consult with the President of Zanzibar before dividing Tanzania Zanzibar into regions, districts or other areas.
 
Article 3  []
(1) The United Republic is a democratic and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy.
(2) All matters pertaining to the registration and administration of political parties in the United Republic shall be governed by the provisions of this Constitution and of a law
enacted by Parliament for that purpose.
 
Article 4 []
(l) All state authority in the United Republic shall be exercised and controlled by two organs vested with executive powers, two organs vested  with judicial powers and two organs vested with legislative and supervisory powers over the conduct of public affairs.
(2)  The organs vested with executive powers shall be the Government of the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Tanzania Zanzibar; the organs vested with judicial
powers shall be the Judiciary of the United Republic and the Judiciary of Tanzania Zanzibar; and the organs vested with legislative and supervisory powers over public affairs shall be the parliament of theUnited Republic and the House of Representatives of Zanzibar.
(3) For the purposes of the efficient conduct of public affairs in the United Republic and for the allocation of powers among the organs specified in this Article, there shall be union matters as listed in the First Schedule and there shall also be non-union matters which are all other matters not so listed
(4) Each organ specified in this Article shall be established and shall discharge its functions in accordance with the other provisions of this Constitution.
 
Article 5 []
(l) Every citizen of the United Republic who attained the age of eighteen years is entitled to vote in any public election held in Tanzania.  This right shall be exercised in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (2), and of the other provisions of this Constitution and the law for the time being in force in Tanzania in relation to public elections.
(2) Parliament may enact a law imposing conditions restricting a citizen from exercising the right to vote by reason of any of the following grounds:
(a) being a citizen of another state;
(b) being mentally infirm;
(c)  being convicted of certain specified criminal offences;
(d) omission or failure to prove or to produce evidence as to age, citizenship or
registration as a Voter. Save for these grounds no other grounds shall disqualify a citizen
from exercising the right to vote.
(3) Parliament shall enact electoral law to provide for the
following:
(a) procedure for the registration of voters for the election of President of the United Republic and of members of the National Assembly;
(b) specification of places and times for the registration of voters and for voting;
(c) procedure and conditions for enabling a person registered as a voter in one place to vote in
another;
(d) Specification of the duties and functions of the Electoral Commission and the procedure for every public election which shall be conducted under the direction and supervision of the Electoral Commission.
 

Part II  Fundamental Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy

 
Article 6 []
In this Part of this Chapter unless the context requires otherwise, Government includes the Government of the United Republic, the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar,
local government authorities and any person who exercises power or authority on behalf of either Government.
 
Article 7[]
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article (2), it shall be the duty and responsibility of the Government, all its organs and all persons or authorities exercising executive, legislative or judicial functions to take cognizance of, observe and apply the provisions of this Part of this Chapter.
(2) The provisions of this Part of this Chapter are not enforceable by any court. No court shall be competent to determine the question whether or not any action or omission by any person or any court, or any law or judgment complies with the provisions of this Part of this Chapter.
 
Article 8 []
(1) The United Republic of Tanzania is a state which adheres to the principles of democracy and social justice and accordingly -
(a) sovereignity resides in the people and it is from the people that the Government through
this Constitution shall derive all its power and authority;
(b) the primary objective of the Government shall
be the welfare of the people;
(c) the Government shall be accountable to the people; and
(d) the people shall participate in the affairs of their Government in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) The structure of the Government of the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar or any of their organs, and the discharge of their functions shall be
so effected as to take into account the unity of the United Republic and the need to promote national unity and preserve national dignity.
 
Article 9 []
The object of this Constitution is to facilitate the building of the United Republic as a nation of equal and free individuals enjoying freedom, justice, fraternity and concord, through the pursuit of the policy of Socialism and Self Reliance which emphasises the application of socialist principles while taking into account the conditions  prevailing in the United Republic. Therefore, the state authority and all its agencies are obliged to direct their policies and programmes towards ensuring-
(a) that human dignity and other human rights are
respected and cherished;
(b) that the laws of the land are upheld and enforced;
(c) that public affairs are conducted in such a way as to ensure that the national resources and heritage are harnessed, preserved and applied for the common good and also to prevent the exploitation of one person by another;
(d) that the national economy is planned and promoted in a balanced and integrated manner,
(e) that every person who is able to work does work, and work means any legitimate activity by which a person earns a living;
(f) that human dignity is preserved and upheld in accordance with the spirit of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights;
(g) that the Government and all its agencies provide equal opportunities to all citizens, men and women alike without regard to their colour, tribe, religion, or station in life;
(h) that all forms of injustice, Intimidation, discrimination, corruption, oppression or favoritism are eradicated;
(i) that the use of national resources places emphasis on the development of the people
and in particular is geared towards the eradication of poverty, ignorance and disease;
(j) that the economic activities are not conducted in a manner capable of resulting in the
concentration of wealth or the major means of production in the hands of a few individuals;
(k) that the country is governed according to the principles of democracy and socialism.
 
Article 11[]
(1) The state authority shall make appropriate provisions for the realisation of a person's right to work, to self education and social welfare at times of old age, sickness or disability and in other cases of incapacity, without prejudice to those rights, the state authority shall make provisions to ensure that every person earns his livelihood.
(2) Every person has the right to self education, and every citizen shall be free to pursue education in a field of his choice up to the highest level according to his merits and ability.
(3) The Government shall endeavor to ensure that there are equal and adequate opportunities to all persons to enable them to acquire education and vocational training at all levels of schools and other institutions of learning.
 

Part III  Basic rights and duties

 

[Title]  The Right to Equality

 
Article 12 []
(1) All human beings are born free, and are all equal.
(2) Every person is entitled to recognition and respect for his dignity.
 
Article 13 []
(1) All persons are equal before the law and are entitled, without any discrimination, to protection and equality before the law.
(2) No law enacted by any authority in the United Republic shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect
(3) The civic rights, duties and interests of every person and community shall be protected and determined by the courts of law or other state agencies established by or under the law.
(4) No person shall be discriminated against by any person or any authority acting under any law or in the discharge of the functions or business of any state office.
(5) For the purposes of this Article the expression sfy the needs, rights or other requirements of different persons on the basis of their nationality, tribe, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion or station in life such that certain categories of people are regarded as weak or inferior and are subjected to restrictions or conditions whereas
persons of other categories are treated differently or are accorded opportunities or advantage outside the specified conditions or the prescribed necessary qualifications.
(6) To ensure equality before the law, the state authority shall make procedures which are appropriate or which take into account the following principles, namely:
(a) when the rights and duties of any person are being determined by the court or any other agency, that person shall be entitled to a fair hearing and to the right of appeal or other legal remedy against the decision of the court or of the other agency concerned;
(b) no person charged with a criminal offence shall be treated as guilty of the offence until proved guilty of that offence;
(c) no person shall be punished for any act which at the time of its commission was not an offence under the law, and also no penalty shall be imposed which is heavier than the penalty in force at the time the offence was committed;
(d) for the purposes of preserving the right or equality of human beings, human dignity
shall be protected in all activities pertaining to criminal investigations and process, and
in any other matters for which a person is restrained, or in the execution of a
sentence;
(e) no person shall be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment
 

[Title]  The Right to Life

 
Article 14 []
 
Article 15 []
(l) Every person has the right to and to freedom to live as a free person.
(2) For the purposes of preserving individual freedom and the right to live as a free person, no person shall be arrested, imprisoned, confined, detained, deported or others wise be deprived of his freedom save only-
(a) under circumstances and in accordance with procedures prescribed by law; or
(b) in the execution of a judgment, order or a sentence given or passed by the court following a decision in a legal proceeding or a conviction for a criminal offence.
 
Article 16 []
(1) Every person is entitled to respect and protection of his person, the privacy of his own person, his family and of his matrimonial life, and respect and protection of his residence and private communications.
(2) For the purpose of preserving the person's right in accordance with this Article, the state authority shall lay down legal procedures regarding the circumstances, manner and extent to which  the right to privacy, security of his person, his property and residence may be encroached upon without prejudice to the provisions of this Article.
 
Article 17 []
(l) Every citizen of the United Republic has the right to freedom of movement in the United Republic and the right to live in any part of the United Republic, to leave and enter the
country, and the right not to be forced to leave or be expelled from the United Republic.
(2) Any lawful act or any law which is intended to-
(a) curtail a person's freedom of movement and to restrain or imprison him; or
(b) limit a person from exercising his freedom of movement so as to -
(i) execute a judgment or court order or:
(ii) compel a person first to comply with any obligations arising under  another law; or
(iii) protect public interest in general or preserve certain special interest or interests of a certain section of the public, such act or law shall not be or be held to be repugnant to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Article.
 

[Title]  The Freedom of Expression

 
Article 18 []
(1) Without prejudice to expression the laws of the land, every person has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and to seek, receive and impart or disseminate
information and ideas through any media regardless of national frontiers, and also has the right of freedom from interference with his communications.
(2) Every citizen has the right to be informed at all times of various events in the country and in the world at large which are of importance to the lives and activities of the people
and also of issues of importance to society.
 
Article 19 []
(1) Every person has the right to freedom of thought or conscience, belief or faith, and choice in matters of religion, including the freedom to change his religion or faith.
(2) Without prejudice to the relevant laws of the United Republic the profession of religion, worship and propagation of religion shall be free and a private affair of an individual; and the affairs and management of religious bodies shall not be part of the activities of the State authority.
(3) In this Article reference to the word cluding reference to religious denominations, and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly.
 
Article 20 []
(1) Every person is entitled to freedom, subject to the laws of the land, to freely and peaceably assemble, associate and cooperate with other persons, express views publicly, and more specially to form or join associations or organisations formed for the purposes of
preserving or furthering his beliefs or interests or any other interests.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article (1) it shall not be lawful for any political entity to be registered which according to its constitution or policy -
(a) aims at promoting or furthering the interests of:
(i) any religious faith or group;
(ii) any tribal group, place of origin, race or
gender,
(iii) only a particular area within any part of the United Republic;
(b) advocates for the break-up of the United Republic;
(c) accepts or advocates for the use of force or violent confrontation as means of attaining its political goals;
(d) advocates or intends to carry on its political activities in only one part of the United Republic;
(e) does not permit periodic and democratic election of its leaders.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation which makes provision for ensuring that political parties operate within the limits and adhere to the conditions set out in sub-article (2) concerning the
freedom and the right of persons to associate and assemble.
(4) Subject to the relevant laws of the land, it shall be unlawful for any person to be compelled to join any association or organisation, or for any association or any political party to be refused registration on grounds only of its ideology or philosophy.
 
Article 21 []
(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 5, 39 and 67 of this Constitution and of the laws of the land in connection with the conditions for electing and being elected or for appointing and being appointed to take in matters related to governance of the country, every citizen of the United Republic is entitled to take part in matters pertaining to the governance of the country,
either directly or through representatives freely elected by the people, in conformity with the procedures laid down by, or in accordance with, the law.
(2) Every citizen has the right and the freedom to participate fully in the process leading to the decision on matters affecting him, his well-being or the nation.
 

[Title]  The Right to Work

 
Article 22 []
(1) Every person has the right to work.
(2) Every citizen is entitled to equal opportunity and right on
equal terms to hold any office or discharge any function under the state authority.
 
Article 23 []
(1) Every person, without discrimination of any kind, is entitled to remuneration commensurate with his work, and all persons working according to their ability shall be remunerated according to the measure and nature of the work done.
(2) Every person who works is entitled to just remuneration.
 
Article 24 []
(1) Subject to the provisions of the relevant laws of the land, every person is entitled to own property, and has a right to the protection of his property held in accordance with law.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-article (1) it shall be unlawful for any person to be deprived of property for the purposes on nationalisation or any other purposes without the
authority of law which makes provision for fair and adequate compensation.
 

[Title] Duties to the Society

 
Article 25 []
(1) Work alone creates the material wealth in society and is the source of the well-being of the people and the measure of human dignity.  Accordingly, every person has the duty to-
(a) participate voluntarily and honestly in lawful and productive work; and
(b) observe work discipline and strive to attain the individual and group production targets
desired or set by law
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-article (1), there shall be no forced labour in the United Republic.
(3) For the purposes of this Article, and in this Constitution generally, it is hereby declared that no work shall be deemed to be forced, cruel or humiliating labour, if such work is according to law -
(a) work which has to be done pursuant to a judgement or order of a court
(b) work which has to be done by members of any Force in the discharge of their responsibilities;
(c) work which has to be done by any person due to a state of emergency or any calamity which threatens the life or well-being of the society;
(d) any work or service which forms part of -
(i) routine services for ensuring the well-being of society;
(ii) compulsory national service provided for by law;
(iii) the national endeavor at the mobilization of human resources for the enhancement of the society and the national economy and to ensure development and national productivity.
 
Article 26 []
(1) Every person has the duty to observe and to abide by this Constitution and the laws of the United Republic.
(2) Every person has the right, in accordance with the procedure provided by law, to take legal action to ensure the protection of this Constitution and the laws of the land.
 
Article 27 []
(1) Every person has the duty to protect the natural resources of the United Republic, the property of the state authority, all property collectively owned by the people, and also to respect another person' property.
(2) All persons shall be required by law to safeguard the property of the state authority and all property  collectively owned by the people, to combat all forms of waste and squander, and to manage the national economy assiduously with the attitude of people who are masters of the destiny of their nation.
 
Article 28 []
(1) Every citizen has the duty to protect, preserve and maintain the independence, sovereignty, territory and unity of the nation.
(2) Parliament may enact appropriate laws to enable the people to serve in the Forces and in the defence of the nation.
(3) No person shall have the right to sign an act of capitulation and surrender of the nation to the victor, nor ratify or recognize an act of occupation or division of the United Republic or of any area of the territory of the nation and, subject to this Constitution and any other
laws enacted, no person shall have the right to prevent the citizens of the United Republic from waging war against any enemy who attacks the nation.
(4) Treason as defined by law shall be the most grave offence against the United Republic.
 

[Title]  General Provisions

 
Article 29 []
(1) Every person in the United Republic has the right to enjoy fundamental human rights and the benefits of the fulfillment by every person of his duty to society, as provided in Articles 12 to 28 of this Part of this Chapter of the  Constitution.
(2) Every person in the United Republic has the right to equal protection under the laws of the United Republic.
(3) No citizen of the United Republic shall have a right, status or special position on the basis of his lineage, tradition or descent
(4) It is hereby prohibited for any law to confer any right, status, or special position upon any citizen of the United Republic on the basis of lineage, tradition or descent.
(5) In order that all persons may benefit from the rights and freedoms specified by this Constitution, every person has the duty to so conduct himself and his affairs as not to infringe upon the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.
 
Article 30 []
(1) The human rights and freedoms, the principles of which are set out in this Constitution, shall not be exercised by a person in a manner that causes interference with or curtailment of
the rights and freedoms of other persons or of the public interest.  
(2) It is hereby declared that the provisions contained in this Part of this Constitution which set out the basic human rights, freedoms and duties, do not invalidate any existing legislation or prohibit the enactment of any legislation or the doing of any lawful act in accordance with such legislation for the purposes of-
(a) ensuring that the rights and freedoms of other people or of the interests of the public are not prejudiced by the wrongful exercise of the freedoms and rights of individuals;
(b) ensuring the defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, rural and urban development planning, the exploitation and utilization of minerals or the increase and
development of property or any oilier interests for the purposes of enhancing the public benefit;
(c) ensuring the execution of a judgment or order of a court given or made in any civil or criminal matter,
(d) protecting the reputation, rights and freedoms of others or the privacy of persons involved in any court proceedings, prohibiting the disclosure of confidential information, or safeguarding the dignity, authority and independence of the courts;
(e) imposing restrictions, supervising and controlling the formation, management and
activities of private societies and organisations in the country; or
(f) enabling any other thing to be done which promotes, or preserves the national interest in
general.
(3) Any person alleging that any provision in his Part of this Chapter or in any law concerning his right or duty owed to him has been, is being or is likely to be violated by any person anywhere in the United Republic, may institute proceedings for redress in the High Court.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of Constitution, the High Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear and determine any matter brought before it pursuant to this Article;
and the state authority may enact legislation for the purposes of-
(a) regulating procedure for instituting proceedings pursuant to this Article;
(b) specifying the powers of the Court in relation to the hearing proceedings instituted pursuant to Article;
(c) ensuring the effective exercise of powers of the High Court, preservation and enforcement of rights, freedoms and duties accordance with this Constitution.
(5) Where in any proceedings it is alleged that any law enacted or any action taken by the Government or other authority abrogates or abridges any of the basic rights, freedoms and duties set out in Articles 12 to 29 of this Constitution, and the High Court is satisfied that the law or action concerned, to the extent that it conflicts with this Constitution, is void, or is inconsistent with this Constitution, then the High Court, if it deems fit, or if the circumstances or public interest so requires, instead of declaring that such law or action is void, shall have power to decide to afford the Government or other authority concerned an opportunity to rectify the defect found in the law or action concerned within such a period and in such manner as the High Court shall determine, and such law or action shall be deemed to be valid until such time the defect is rectified or the period determined by the High Court lapses, whichever is the earlier.
 

[Title]  Extraordinary Powers of the State Authority

 
Article 31 []
(1) Apart from the provisions of Article 30(2), any law enacted by Parliament shall not be void for the reason only that it enables measures to be taken during a state of emergency or in normal times in relation to persons who are believed to engage in activities which endanger or
prejudice the security of the nation, which measures derogate from the provisions of Articles 14 and 15 of this Constitution.
(2) It is here by prohibited to take any of the measures referred to in sub-article (1) of this Article in pursuance of any law during a state of emergency or in normal times in relation to
any person, save only to the extent that they are necessary and justifiable for dealing with the situation that exists during the state of emergency, or in normal times dealing with the situation created by the conduct of the person concerned.
(3) it is hereby declared that the provisions of this Article shall not authorize the deprivation of a person's right to live save only for deaths resulting from acts of war.
(4) In this and the following Articles of this Part, state emergencymeans any period during which the Proclamation of State of Emergency made by the President in the exercise of the
powers conferred on him by Article 32, is in force.
 
Article 32 []
(1) Subject to this Constitution or to any law enacted by Parliament in that behalf, the President may proclaim a state of emergency in the United Republic or in any part thereof. 
(2) The President may proclaim a state of  emergency only if-
(a) the United Republic is at war; or
(b) there is real danger that the United Republic is about to be invaded and to be in a state of war; or
(c) there is actual situation of breakdown of public order or non-existence of public security in the United Republic or in any part thereof such that it is necessary to take extraordinary measures to restore order and security; or
(d) there is a clear and grave danger such that the breakdown of public order and the cessation of public safety in the United Republic or any part thereof are inescapable except by invoking the extraordinary powers; or
(e) there is imminent occurrence of danger, disaster or environmental calamity which threatens the society or part thereof in the United Republic or,
(i) there is some other kind of danger which clearly constitutes a threat to the state.
(3) In the event a state of emergency is proclaimed in relation to the whole of the United Republic, or to the whole of Mainland Tanzania or the whole of Tanzania Zanzibar, the President shall forthwith transmit a copy of the proclamation to the Speaker of the National Assembly who, after consultation with the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly shall convene a meeting of the National Assembly within not more than fourteen
days, to consider the situation and decide, whether to pass or not to pass a resolution, which has to be supported by the votes of not less than two thirds of all members, in support of the proclamation of a state of emergency issued by the President.
(4) Parliament may enact a legislation providing for times and procedures which will enable certain persons in charge of Government functions in specified areas of the United Republic to request the President to exercise the powers conferred on him by this Article in relation to any of those areas where there exists any of the situations specified in paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of sub-article (2) and such situation does not extend beyond the boundaries of such areas, and also for the purpose of specifying the exercise of executive during a state of
emergency.
(5) A proclamation issued by the President pursuant to this Article shall cease to have effect-
(a) if it is revoked by the President;
(b) if fourteen days lapse from the date of the proclamation without there being passed the
resolution referred to in sub-article (3);
(c) after the lapse of a period of six months from the date of the proclamation; save that a sitting of the National Assembly may, before the expiration of the period of six months, extend from time to time the period of the operation of the proclamation for further periods of six months by a resolution passed by votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members present;
(d) at any time when a meeting of the National Assembly revokes the proclamation by a
resolution supported by votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members.
(6) For the avoidance of doubt in the interpretation or application of the provisions of this article, the provisions of legislation enacted by Parliament and of any other law, concerning the proclamation of a state of emergency as provided for in this Article shall apply only to the part of the United Republic in respect of which the state of emergency has been proclaimed.
 

Chapter II  The Executive of the United Republic

 

Part I  The President

 
Article 33 []
(l) There shall be a President of the United Republic.
(2) The President shall be the Head of State, the Head of Government and the Commander in - Chief of the Armed Forces.
 
Article 34 []
(l) There shall be a Government of the United Republic which shall have authority over all Union Matters in the United Republic and over all other matters concerning Mainland Tanzania.
(2) The authority of the Government of the United Republic shall concern the application and upholding of this Constitution and also all other matters over which Parliament has
power to legislate.
(3) All the authority of the Government of the United Republic over all Union Matters in the United Republic and also over all other matters concerning Mainland Tanzania shall vest in
the President of the United Republic.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the authority of the Government of the United Republic shall be exercised by either the President himself directly or by delegation of
such authority to other persons holding office in the service of the United Republic.
(5) It is hereby declared that the provisions of this Article shall not be construed as -
(a) transferring to the President any legal functions conferred by law on any person or authority other than the President; or
(b) preventing Parliament from conferring any legal authority upon any person or persons or
authority other than the President.
 
Article 35 []
(1) All Executive functions of the Government of the United Republic shall be discharged by officers of the Government on behalf of the President. 
(2) Orders and other directives issued for the purposes of this Article shall be signified in such manner as may be specified in regulations issued by the President in conformity with the
provisions of this Constitution.
 
Article 36 []
(l) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution and of any other law, the President shall have power to constitute and to abolish any office in the service of the Government of the United Republic.
(2) Subject to the other provisions contained in this Constitution and of any relevant law, the authority to appoint persons to offices in the service of the Government of the United
Republic, and also the authority to promote, to remove, to dismiss, and to discipline such persons, shall be exercised by the President the Service Commissions and any other authorities specified and empowered in respect of any office and vested with powers in relation to any office or category of offices in accordance with this Constitution or in accordance with any relevant law.
 
Article 37 []
(1) Apart from complying with the provisions contained this Constitution, and the laws of the United Republic in the performance of his duties and functions, the President shall be free and shall not be obliged to take the advice given to him by any person, where he is required by this Constitution or any other law to act in accordance with the advice given to him by any person or authority.
(2) Where the Cabinet finds that the President is unable to discharge the functions of his office by reason of physical or mental infirmity, it may submit to the Chief Justice a resolution, requesting him to certify that the President by reason of physical or mental infirmity, is unable to discharge the functions of his office. Upon receiving such a resolution, the Chief Justice shall appoint a medical board of not less than three persons from amongst experts recognized as such by the law governing medical practitioners in Tanzania  and such board shall inquire into that issue and advise the Chief Justice accordingly, and he may, after
considering the medical evidence, present to the Speaker a certificate certifying that the President, due to physical or mental infirmity, is unable to discharge the functions of his office; and if the Chief Justice does not rescind that certificate within seven days for the reason that the President's condition has improved and he has resumed work, then it shall be deemed that the office of the President is vacant, and the provisions contained in subarticle (3) shall apply.
(3) Where the office of the President is vacant by reason of the operation of the provisions contained in sub-article (2), or where the office of the President is vacant for any other reason, or in the event that the President shall be absent from the United Republic, the duties and functions of the President shall be discharged by one of the following, in the order specified, that is to say-
(a) the Vice-President or, if his office is vacant or if he also is absent or is ill; then
(b) the Speaker of the National Assembly, or if his office is vacant or if he also is absent or is ill; then
(c) the Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal of the United Republic.
(4) Where any of the persons specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of subarticle (3) discharges the duties and functions of the office of President by reason that the person preceding him is absent then such person shall cease to discharge those duties and functions immediately upon that other person preceding him returns and assumes the discharge of the duties and functions of the office of President.
(5) Where the office of President becomes vacant by reason of the death of the President, his resignation, loss of the electoral qualifications or inability to perform his functions due to physical infirmity, or failure to discharge the duties and functions of the office of President, then the Vice- President shall be sworn in and become the President for the unexpired period of the term of five years and in accordance with the conditions set out in Article 40, then after consultation with the political party to which he belongs, the President shall propose the name
of the person who shall be Vice-President and such appointment shall be confirmed by the National Assembly by votes of not less than fifty percentum of all Members of Parliament.
(6) It is hereby declared that the office of President shall not be deemed to be vacant and the President shall not be deemed to be absent from the United Republic if-
(a) he is absent from the town which is the seat of Government of the United Republic;
(b) be is absent from the United Republic for a period of twenty four hours; or
(c) he is ill but hopes to be better after a short period.
(7) Where any of the situations specified in sub-article (6) occurs, and the President deems it appropriate to delegate his powers for the duration of any such situation, then he may give directions in writing for the appointment of any of the persons mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) of sub-article (3) of this Article for the purposes of discharging the functions of the office of President when he is absent or ill, and the person so appointed shall discharge those functions of the office of President in accordance with the terms specified by the President; the terms specified in this Article shall be understood not to derogate from or prejudice the power of the President under any other law to delegate his functions to any other person.
(8) The President may, if in his opinion it is desirable to do so, direct in writing, any Minister to discharge such functions of the office of President as the President may specify, in those directions and the Minister so directed shall by virtue of the provisions of this sub-article have power to discharge those functions of President subject to any limitations or restrictions which the President may specify, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law: Provided that-
(a) the President shall not have authority to delegate to a Minister in accordance with the provisions of this sub-article any function of the office of President conferred on him by any law arising from the terms of any treaty to which the United Republic is a party if by law the President is not authorised to delegate such function to any other person;
(b) it is hereby declared that directions given by the President under the provisions of this sub-article directing any Minister to discharge any function of the office of President shall not be deemed to prevent the President from discharging such function himself.
(9) For the purposes of clarity of the provisions of this Article-
(a) a Cabinet meeting held for the purpose of submitting to the Chief Justice a resolution concerning the state of health of the President shall be deemed to be valid not-withstanding that any member of the Cabinet is absent or that his position is vacant and it shall be deemed that the Cabinet has passed that resolution provided that it is supported by the majority vote of
members attending and voting;
(b) the President shall not be deemed as being absent from the United Republic by reason only of the fact that he is in passage from one part of Tanzania to another through a foreign country, or for the reason that he has given directions in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (7) and those directions have not been rescinded.
(10) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions set out in this Article, a person discharging the functions of the office of President under this Article shall not have power to dissolve Parliament, to remove any of the Ministers from office or to revoke any appointment
made by the President.
(11) If any person discharging the functions of the office of President in accordance with the provisions of this Article is a Member of Parliament, he shall not forfeit his seat in the National Assembly or be disqualified for election as Member of Parliament by reason only of his discharging the functions of President by virtue of the provisions of this Article.
 
Article 38 []
(1) The President shall be elected by the people in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and in accordance with the law enacted by Parliament pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution, making provisions concerning the election of the President.
(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the office of President shall be vacant, and the election of the President shall be held or that vacancy shall be filled otherwise.
in accordance with this Constitution as the case may be upon the occurrence of any of the following events-
(a) the dissolution of Parliament;
(b) the resignation of the President without first dissolving Parliament;
(c) the disqualification of the President from holding elective office;
(d) the impeachment of the President by the National Assembly in accordance with this
Constitution and his removal from office;
(e) certification pursuant to the provisions of Article 37 of this Constitution that the
President is unable to discharge his duties and functions; or
(f) the death of the President.
(3) The office of President shall not be deemed to be vacant by reason only that the National Assembly has passed a motion of no confidence in the Prime Minister.
 
Article 39 []
(1) A person shall not be entitled to be elected to hold the office of President of the United Republic save only if-
(a) he is a citizen of the United Republic by birth in terms of the citizenship law;
(b) he has attained the age of forty years;
(c) he is a member of, and a candidate nominated by, a political party;
(d) he is qualified to be a Member of Parliament or a Member of the House of
Representatives.
(2) Without prejudice to any person's right and freedom of expression to hold his own views, to profess a religious faith of his choice, to associate with others and to participate with others in community work in accordance with the laws of the land, no person shall be qualified to be elected to hold the office of President of the United Republic unless he is a member of, and a candidate proposed by, a political party.
 
Article 40 []
(l) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, any person who holds office as President shall be eligible for re-election to that office.
(2) No person shall be elected more than twice to hold the office of President.
(3) A person who has been President of Zanzibar shall not be disqualified from being elected President of the United Republic for the reason only that be has once held office as President of Zanzibar.
(4) Where the Vice-President holds the office of President in accordance with the provisions of Article 37(5) for less than three years, he shall be eligible to contest for the office of
President for two turns, but where he occupies the office of President for three years or more, he shall be eligible to contest for the office of President for one term only.
 
Article 41 []
(1) Where Parliament has been dissolved or where any of the events specified in sub-article
(2) of Article 38 have occurred and it becomes necessary to hold an election of the President, every political party wishing to participate in the election of President shall submit to the Electoral Commission, in accordance with the law, the name of one of its members whom it
proposes as a candidate to contest the election for the President of the United Republic and the name of another member of the party whom it proposes for the office of Vice-President.
(2) The names of the candidates proposed for the Presidential election shall be submitted to the Electoral Commission on a date and time appointed in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament, and a person shall not be validly nominated save only if his nomination is supported by such number of voters and in such manner as shall be prescribed by an Act of Parliament.
(3) If on the date and time appointed for the purpose of submission of the names of the candidates proposed only one candidate is validly nominated, the Electoral Commission shall
present such candidate's name to the people, who shall vote either for or against him in accordance with the provisions of this Article and an Act enacted by Parliament.
(4) The election of the President of the United Republic shall be held on a date to be appointed by the Electoral Commission in accordance with an Act of Parliament.
(5) All other matters concerning the procedures for the election of the President shall be as provided for in a law enacted by Parliament in that behalf.
(6) Any candidate contesting for the office of President shall be declared duly elected President only if he has obtained more than half of all the valid votes cast or, where a second ballot is held for the reason that no candidate obtained more than half of all the valid votes, if he obtains either more than half of all valid votes cast or more votes than any of the other candidates.
(7) When a candidate is declared by the Electoral Commission to have been duly elected in accordance with this Article, then no court of law shall have any power to inquire into
the election of that candidate.
 
Article 42 []
(1) The President-elect shall assume office of President as soon as possible after it is declared that he has been elected President, but in any event he shall assume office before the expiration of not more than seven days.
(2) Unless he sooner resigns or dies, the person elected as President, subject to the provisions contained in sub-article (3), shall hold the office of President for a period of five years from
the date on which he was elected President.
(3) A person elected President shall hold the office of President until-
(a) the day his successor in office takes the oath of office; or
(b) the day he dies while in office; or
(c) the day he resigns from office; or
(d) he ceases to hold the office of President in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(4) If the United Republic is at war and the President considers that it is not practicable to hold elections, the National Assembly may from time to time, pass a resolution extending the
period of five years specified in sub-article (2) of this Article save that no such extension shall exceed a period of six months at any one time.
(5) Every President-elect and every person acting in the office of President shall, before assuming the functions of the office of President, take and subscribe, in the presence of the
Chief Justice of to be United Republic, the oath of allegiance and such other oath for the execution of the functions of the office of President as may be prescribed by an Act of Parliament.
 
Article 43 []
(l) The President shall be paid such salary and other remuneration, and on retirement he shall receive such pension, gratuity or allowances, as may be determined by the National
Assembly, and the salary, other remuneration, pension, and that gratuity shall all be charged on the Consolidated Fund of the United Republic and shall be paid in accordance with the
provisions of this Article.
(2) The salary and all other payments due to the President shall not be reduced while he is in office in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
 
Article 44 []
(1) Subject to this Constitution or to any Act of Parliament providing in that behalf, the President may declare the existence of a state of war between the United Republic and
any other country.
(2) After making the declaration, the President shall transmit a copy of such declaration to the Speaker of the National Assembly who, after consultation with the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly, shall within fourteen days from the date of the declaration, convene a meeting of the National Assembly to deliberate on the prevailing
situation and to consider whether or not to pass a resolution in support of the declaration of war made by the President.
 
Article 45 []
(1) Subject to the other provisions contained in this Article, the President may do any of the following:
(a) grant a pardon to any person convicted by a court of law of any offence, and he may grant such pardon unconditionally or on conditions, subject to law;
(b) grant any person a respite, either indefinitely or for a specified period, of the execution of any punishment imposed on that person for any offence;
(c) substitute a less severe form of punishment for any punishment imposed on any person for any offence; and
(d) remit the whole or part of any punishment imposed on any person for any offence, or remit the whole or part of any penalty of fine or forfeiture of property belonging to a convicted person which would otherwise be due to the Government of the United Republic on account of any offence.
(2) Parliament may enact legislation making provision for the procedure to be followed by the President in the exercise of his powers under this Article.
(3) The provisions of this Article shall apply to persons convicted and punished in Tanzania Zanzibar and to punishments imposed in Tanzania Zanzibar under legislation enacted by Parliament which applies to Tanzania Zanzibar likewise such provisions shall apply to persons convicted and punished in Mainland Tanzania accordance with law.
 
Article 46 []
(1) During the President's tenure of office in accordance with this Constitution it shall be prohibited to institute or continue court any criminal proceedings whatsoever against him.
(2) During the President's tenure of office in accordance with this Constitution, no civil Proceedings against him shall be instituted in court in respect of done or not done, or
purporting to have been done or not done, by him in his personal capacity as an ordinary citizen whether before or after he assumed the office of President unless at least thirty days before the proceedings are instituted in court, notice of claim in writing has been delivered to him or sent to him pursuant to the procedure prescribed by an Act of Parliament, stating the nature of such proceedings, the cause of action, the name, residential address of the
claimant and the relief which he claims.
(3) Except where he ceases to hold the office of President pursuant to the provisions of Article 46A(10) it shall be prohibited to institute in court criminal or civil proceedings whatsoever against a person who was holding the office of President after he ceases to hold such office for anything he did in his capacity as President while he held the office of President in accordance with this Constitution.
 
Article 46 A []
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 46 of this Constitution the National Assembly may pass a resolution to remove the President from office if a motion to impeach the President is moved and passed in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, no motion to impeach the President shall be moved save only if it is alleged that the President-
(a) has committed acts which generally violate the Constitution or the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(b) has committed acts which contravene the conditions concerning the registration of political parties specified in Article 20(2) of this Constitution;
(c) has conducted himself in a manner which lowers the esteem of the office of President of the United Republic, and no such motion shall be moved within twenty months from the time
when a similar motion was previously moved and rejected by the National Assembly.
(3) The National Assembly shall not pass a motion to impeach the President save only if-
(a) a written notice signed and supported by not less the twenty per cent of all the members of Parliament is submitted to the Speaker thirty days prior to the sitting at which such motion is
intended to be moved in the National Assembly, specifying the wrong committed by the president and proposing that a Special Committee of Inquiry be constituted to inquire into the charges brought against the President.
(b) at anytime after the Speaker receives the notice duly signed by the Member of Parliament and satisfies himself that the provisions of the Constitution for the moving of the motion have been complied with, to vote on the motion to constitute a Special Committee of Inquiry, and if it is supported by not less than two thirds of all the Member of Parliament, the Speaker
shall announce the names of the members of the Special Committee of Inquiry
(4) The Special Committee of Inquiry for the purpose of this Article shall consist of the following members, that is to say-
(a) the Chief Justice of the United Republic who shall be the Chairman of the Committee;
(b) the Chief Justice of Tanzania Zanzibar; and
(c) seven members appointed by the Speaker in accordance with the Standing Orders of the
National Assembly and taking into account the proportion representation amongst the political parties represented in the National Assembly.
(5) In the event that the National Assembly passes the motion to constitute a Special Committee of Inquiry, the President shall be deemed to be out of office, and the duties and functions of the office of President shall be discharged in accordance with the provisions of Article 37(3) of this Constitution until the Speaker shall inform the President about the resolution of the National Assembly in connection with the charges brought against him.
(6) Within seven days after the Special Committee of Inquiry is constituted, it shall sit, inquire into and analyse the charges preferred against the President, including affording the
President the opportunity to be heard in his defence in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
(7) As soon as possible and in any event within a period of not more than ninety days, the Special Committee of Inquiry shall submit its report to the Speaker.
(8) After the Speaker receives the report of the Special Committee of Inquiry, the report shall be tabled before the National Assembly in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the
Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
(9) After the report of the Special Committee of inquiry is submitted pursuant to sub-article (8) the National Assembly shall discuss the report and shall afford the President the opportunity to be heard, and then by the votes of not less than two thirds majority of all the Members of Parliament, the National Assembly shall pass a resolution either that the charges against the president have been proved and that he is unworthy of continuing to hold the office of President, or that the charges have not been proved.
(10) In the event the National Assembly passes a resolution that the charges against the President have been proved and that he is unworthy of continuing to hold the office of
President, the Speaker shall inform the President and the Chairman of the Electoral Commission about such resolution of the National Assembly, whereupon the President shall be obliged to resign before the expiry of three days from the day the National Assembly passed the resolution.
(11) In the event the President ceases to hold the office of President by reason of the charges against him being proved he shall not be entitled, to receive any payment by way of pension or to receive any benefits or other privileges which he has under the Constitution or any other law enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 46 B []
(1) Without prejudice to the duty of every citizen which is mentioned in Article 28 this Constitution, the principal executive leaders of the organs vested with executive powers in the United Republic mentioned in Article 4 of this Constitution Act No.12 shall be duty bound, each of them in the exercise of the powers conferred on him by this Constitution or the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984, to ensure that he protects, strengthens and preserves the integrity of the United Republic.
(2) For the purposes of the provisions of sub-article (1), each of the principal leaders of the organs vested with executive powers of the United Republic shall, before assuring office in
accordance with this Constitution, take oath to defend and preserve the integrity of the
United Republic in accordance with this Constitution.
(3) The principal leaders to whom the provisions of this Article apply are:
(a) the President of the United Republic;
(b) the Vice-President of the United Republic;
(c) the President of Zanzibar; and
(d) the Prime Minister of the Unit Republic.
 

Part II  Vice-President

 
Article 47 []
(1) There shall be a Vice-President, who shall be the principal assistant to the President in respect of all the matters in the United Republic generally and, in particular shall-
(a) assist the President in making a follow-up on the day-to-day implementation of Union Matters
(b) perform all duties assigned to him by the President; and
(c) perform all duties and functions of the office of President when the President is out of office or out the country.
(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 37 (5), the Vice-President shall be elected in the same election together with the President, after being nominated by his party at the same time as the Presidential candidate and being voted for together on the same ticket. When the Presidential candidate is elected the Vice-President shall have been elected.
(3) A person shall be nominated to contest for the office of Vice-President on the basis of the principle that where the President of the United Republic hails from one part of the United Republic, then the Vice-President shall be a person who hails from the other part of the Union.
(4) A person shall not be nominated to contest for the office of Vice-President of the United Republic, save only if-
(a) he is a citizen of the United Republic by birth in accordance with the citizenship law;
(b) he has attained the age of forty;
(c) he is a member of, and a candidate nominated by, a political party; and
(d) he is qualified to be a Member of Parliament or a Member of the House of Representatives.
(5) Any party shall not be prevented from nominating any person to contest for the office of Vice-President for the reason only that such person is at that time holding the office of President of Zanzibar or the office of Prime Minister of the United Republic.
(6) The Vice-President shall not at the same time be a Member of Parliament, Prime Minister of the United Republic, or President of Zanzibar.
(7) Where a person who is Prime Minister, or President of Zanzibar is appointed or elected to be Vice-President of the United Republic he shall cease to hold the office of Prime Minister
or President of Zanzibar, as the case may be.
(8) The Vice-President shall perform his duties under the direction and supervision of the President and shall provide leadership and be answerable to the President in respect of any
matters or functions assigned to him by the President.
 
Article 48 []
(1) The Vice-President shall assume the office of Vice-President on the same day the President assumes office.
(2) The Vice-President appointed in with Article 50 (4) shall take oath and assume his after his appointment is confirmed by the National Assembly.
 
Article 49 []
The Vice-President shall, before assuming office, make and subscribe before the Chief Justice of United Republic the oath of allegiance and such other oath concerning the due discharge of the function of his office as may be prescribed by Act of Parliament.
 
Article 50 []
(1) Unless he sooner resigns or dies, a person elected or appointed in accordance with Article 3 7(5), to Vice-President, shall, subject to the other provisions this Article, hold office for a period of five years from the day he is elected Vice-President.
(2) The Vice-President shall hold office until-
(a) his tenure of office expires;
(b) he dies while in office;
(d) he is sworn in as President after  the office of  President falls vacant;
(e) he is convicted of any criminal offence disclosing lack of honesty or loyalty;
(f) when another President is sworn in to hold the office of President together with his Vice-
President;
(g) he is removed from office following his impeachment by the National Assembly in
accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article;
(h) he otherwise ceases to hold the office of Vice-President in accordance the provisions of this Constitution.
(3) The National Assembly shall have the same power to remove the Vice-President from office as it has in relation to the President save that any motion impeach the Vice-President shall be moved before the National Assembly only if it is alleged that-
(a) the President has submitted a certificate to the Speaker stating that the Vice-President has ceased or failed to discharge the duties and functions of the office of Vice-President;
(b) he has committed acts which generally violate the Constitution or the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(c) he has committed acts which contravene the conditions concerning the registration of political parties specified in Article 20(2) of the Constitution; or
(d) he has conducted himself in a manner that lowers the esteem of the office of President of the United Republic or the office of Vice-President. And no such motion shall be moved within twelve months from the time when a similar motion was previously moved and rejected by the National Assembly.
(4) In the event that the office of Vice-President is vacant pursuant to the provisions contained in Article 50(3), then as soon as possible and in any event within a period not exceeding fourteen days after Vice-President has ceased to hold his office, the President shall appoint a person who shall be the Vice-President and such appointment shall be confirmed by the National Assembly by a majority vote of the members of Parliament.
sub-article (3) shall no longer qualify to hold the office of President,
Vice-President, Prime Minister or President of Zanzibar.
 

Part III  Prime Minister, Cabinet and the Government

 

[Title]  Prime Minister

 
Article 51 []
(1) There shall be a Prime Minister of the United Republic who shall be appointed by the President in accordance with the provisions of this Article and who, before assuming his office, shall take and subscribe before the President such oath of office of Prime Minister as may be prescribed by Parliament.
(2) As soon as possible, and in any event within fourteen days after assuming his office, the President shall appoint a Member of Parliament elected from a constituency from a political party having a majority of Members of Parliament in the National Assembly or, if no political party has a majority, who appears to have the support of the majority of the Members of Parliament, to be Prime Minister of the United Republic, and he shall not assume office until his appointment is first confirmed by a resolution of the National Assembly Supported by a majority vote of Members of Parliament.
(3) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the Prime Minister shall hold the office of Prime Minister until
(a) the day the President-elect takes the oath of office; or
(b) the day he dies while in office; or
(c) the day he resigns; or
(d) the day the President appoints another Member of Parliament to hold the office of Prime Minister, or
(e) he ceases to hold the office of Prime Minister in accordance with the other provisions of this Constitution.
 
Article 52 []
(l) The Prime Minister shall have authority over the control, supervision and execution of the day to-day functions and affairs of the Government of the United Republic.
(2) The Prime Minister shall be the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly.
(3) In the exercise of his authority, the Prime Minister shall perform or cause to be performed any matter or matters which the President directs to be done.
 
Article 53 []
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Prime Minister shall be accountable to the President for the exercise of his authority.
(2) The Executive of the United Republic, under the authority of the President, shall be the organ having the power to determine the policy of the Government in general, and Ministers
under the leadership of the Prime Minister, shall be collectively responsible in the National Assembly for the execution of the affairs of the Government of the United Republic.
 
Article 53 A []
(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 51 of this Constitution, the National Assembly may pass a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister if a motion proposing in that behalf is moved and passed in accordance within the provisions of this Article.
(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, any motion for a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister shall not be moved in the National Assembly if-
(a) either it has no relation with the discharge of the responsibilities of the Prime Minister in accordance with Article 52 of the Constitution or there are no allegations that the Prime Minister has contravened the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(b) six months have not lapsed since he was appointed;
(c) nine months have not lapsed since a similar motion was moved in and rejected by the National Assembly.
(3) A motion for a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister shall not be passed by the National Assembly save only if-
(a) a written notice, signed and by not less than twenty percentum of all the Members of Parliament is submitted to the Speaker, atleast fourteen days prior to the day on which the motion is intended to be removed before the National Assembly;
(b) the Speaker satisfies himself the provisions of the Constitution governing the moving of the have been complied with.
(4) A motion which satisfies the provisions this Article shall be moved before the National Assembly as soon as possible in accordance with the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
(5) A motion for a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister shall be passed only if it is supported by majority of the Members of Parliament.
(6) In the event the motion for a vote of confidence in the Prime Minister is supported by a majority of the Members of Parliament, the Speaker shall submit that resolution to the President, and as soon as possible and any event within two days from the day the National Assembly passed the vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister shall be required to resign, and the President shall appoint another Member of parliament to be Prime Minister.
 

[Title] Cabinet and Government

 
Article 54 []
(1) There shall be a Cabinet the members of which shall be the Vice-President, the Prime Minister the President of Zanzibar and all the Ministers.
(2) The President shall attend the meetings of the Cabinet and shall preside over those meetings. In the event the President is absent, the meetings shall be presided over by the Vice-President, and if both the President and the Vice-President are absent, the Prime Minister shall preside over the meetings.
(3) Subject to the provisions contained in Article 37(1) of this Constitution the Cabinet shall be the principal organ for advising the President regarding all matters concerning the exercise of his powers in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, and it shall assist and advise the President over any matter which shall be submitted to the Cabinet pursuant to
specific or general directions issued by the President.
(4) The Attorney General shall attend all the meetings of the Cabinet and shall have all the rights of a member of those meetings save that he shall not have the right to vote at such
meetings.
(5) The question whether any advice, and if so, what advice was given by the Cabinet to the President, shall not be inquired into in any court.
 
Article 55 []
(1) All Ministers who are members of the Cabinet by virtue of Article 54 shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Prime Minister and they shall be responsible
for such offices as the President may, from time to time, by writing under his hand and the Public Seal, establish.
(2) In addition to the Ministers referred to in sub-article (1) the President may, after consultation with the Prime Minister, appoint Deputy Ministers. All Deputy Ministers shall not be members of the Cabinet.
(3) The President may appoint any number of Deputy Ministers who shall assist Ministers in the discharge of their duties and functions.
(4) All Ministers and Deputy Ministers shall be appointed from among Members of Parliament.
(5) Notwithstanding the provision of sub-article (4), in the event that the President is obliged to appoint Minister or a Deputy Minister after dissolution of Parliament then he may appoint any person who was a Member of Parliament before Parliament was dissolved.
 
Article 56 []
A Minister or a Deputy Minister shall not assume his office until he has first taken and subscribe before the President, the oath of allegiance and such other oath for the due discharge of the duties of his office as may be prescribed by a law enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 57 []
(l) The tenure of office of a Minister, or Deputy Minister shall commence on the date he is appointed to hold that office.
(2) The Office of a Minister or a Deputy Minister shall become vacant upon the occurrence of any the following:
(a) if the incumbent resigns or dies;
(b) where the incumbent ceases to be Member of Parliament for any reason not connected with the dissolution of Parliament
(c) where the President revokes the appointment thereby removing the incumbent from office;
(d) where he is elected Speaker;
(e) where the Prime Minister resigns or his office becomes vacant for any other reason;
(f) immediately before the President elect assumes office;
(g) where the Ethics Tribunal makes a decision confirming that he has contravened the law
concerning ethics of public leaders.
 
Article 58 []
Ministers and Deputy Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall be paid a salary, allowances and other remuneration in accordance with a law enacted by
Parliament.
 
Article 59 []
(1) There shall be an Attorney General for the Government of the United Republic, who in the subsequent Articles of this Constitution, shall simply be referred to as the
who shall be appointed by the President.
(2) A person shall not qualify to be appointed to hold the office of Attorney-General save only if in accordance with this Constitution he has the special qualifications as specified in Article
109 (8) which make him a fit and proper person to be appointed a Judge of the High Court of the United Republic or a Judge of the High Court of Zanzibar and he has held any one of those special qualifications for a period of not less than five years.
(3) The Attorney-General shall be the adviser of the Government of the United Republic on legal matters and for that purpose shall be responsible for advising the Government of the
United Republic on all legal matters, and to discharge any other functions pertaining to or connected with law which are referred or assigned to him by the President and also to discharge such other duties or functions which shall be entrusted to him by this Constitution or by any law
(4) In the discharge of his duties and functions in accordance with this Article, the Attorney-General shall be entitled to appear and be heard in all courts in the United Republic.
(5) The Attorney General shall be a Member of Parliament by virtue of his office, and he shall hold office until-
(a) his appointment is revoked by the President; or
(b) immediately before the President - elect assumes the office of President and he shall be paid a salary, allowances and remuneration in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 60 []
There shall be a Secretary to the Cabinet who shall be the chief executive officer in the office of Cabinet, and he shall discharge the following functions in compliance with the general
or specific directions issued to him by the President, that is to say:
(a) to work out a Programme for Cabinet  meetings and prepare the agenda for each meeting;
(b) to record minutes and maintain a record of cabinet meetings;
(c) to notify and explain the decision of the Cabinet to every person or public institution concerned with any such decision; and
(d) to discharge any other duties functions as shall be directed from time to time by the President.
 
Article 61 []
(l) There shall be a Regional Commissioner for each region within the United Republic who, subject to sub-article (3),shall be a leader in the Government of the United Republic.
(2) Regional Commissioners in Mainland Tanzania shall be appointed by the President, after consultation with the Prime Minister.
(3) Regional Commissioners in Tanzania Zanzibar shall be appointed by the President of Zanzibar, after consultation with the President.
(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-article (5), every Regional Commissioner shall have the duty to supervise the discharge of all the duties and functions of the Government of the United Republic in the region assigned to him and for that purpose, he shall discharge all duties and functions specified by or under an written law as being functions of a Regional Commissioner, and shall exercise all such powers specified by any law enacted by Parliament.
(5) In addition to his duties and functions specified in the preceding provisions of this Article, a Regional Commissioner for any region in Tanzania Zanzibar shall discharge the duties and functions of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar which shall be assigned to him by the President of Zanzibar and in accordance with the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, or any law enacted by the House of Representatives.
 

Chapter III  The legislature of the United Republic

 

Part I  Parliament

 
Article 62 []
(1) There shall be a Parliament of the United Republic which shall consist of two parts, that is to say, the President and the National Assembly.
(2) The National Assembly shall consist of categories of members specified in Article 66 of  this Constitution, who shall all be designated as Members of Parliament.
(3) Whenever any matter requires to be decided or done by both parts of Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, or any other law, then that matter shall not be deemed to have been duly decided or done unless it is decided or done by the Members of Parliament and also by the President in accordance with their respective authority in relation to that matter.
 
Article 63 []
(1) The President as one part of Parliament shall exercise all the authority vested in him by this Constitution for that purpose.
(2) The second part of Parliament shall be the principal organ of the United Republic which shall have the authority on behalf of the people to oversee and advise the Government of
the United Republic and all its organs in the discharge of their respective responsibilities in accordance with this Constitution.
(3) For the purposes of discharging its functions the National Assembly may-
(a) put any question to any Minister concerning public affairs in United Republic which are within his responsibility;
(b) debate the performance of each Ministry during the annual budget session of the National Assembly;
(c) deliberate upon and authorize any long or short term plan which is intended to be implemented in the United Republic and enact a law to regulate the implementation of plan;  
(d) enact legislation where implementation requires legislation;
(e) deliberate upon and ratify all treaties and agreements to which the United Republic is party and the provisions of which require ratification.
 
Article 64 []
(1) Legislative power in relation to all Union Matters and also in relation to all other matters concerning Mainland Tanzania is hereby vested in Parliament.
(2) Legislative power in Tanzania Zanzibar over all matters which are not Union Matters is hereby vested in the House of Representatives.
(3) Where any law enacted by the House of Representatives concerns any matter in Tanzania Zanzibar which is within the legislative jurisdiction of Parliament, that law shall be null and void, and likewise if any law enacted by Parliament concerns any matter which is within the legislative jurisdiction of the House of Representatives that law shall be null and void.
(4) Any law enacted by Parliament concerning any matter shall not apply to Tanzania Zanzibar save in accordance with the following provisions:
(a) such law shall have expressly stated that it shall apply to Mainland Tanzania as well as to
Tanzania Zanzibar or it replaces, amends or repeals a law which is in operation in Tanzania
Zanzibar;
(b) such law replaces, or amends or repeals a law which was previously in operation in Mainland Tanzania and also in operation in Tanzania Zanzibar pursuant to the Articles of the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, or pursuant to any law which expressly stated that it apply to Mainland Tanzania as Tanzania Zanzibar; or
(c) such law relates to Union Matters; and whenever reference is made to the term Tanzaniain any law it is hereby declared that such law shall apply in the United Republic accordance with the interpretation contained in the provisions of this Article.
(5) Without prejudice to the application of the Constitution of Zanzibar in accordance with this Constitution concerning all matters pertaining to Tanzania Zanzibar which are not Union
Matters, this Constitution shall have the force of law in the whole of the Republic, and in the event any other law conflicts with the provisions contained in this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail and that other law, to the extent of the inconsistency with
the Constitution, shall be void.
 
Article 65 []
(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the life of each Parliament shall be five years. (2) For the purposes of this Constitution expression of Parliamentmeans that whole period commencing from the date the new Parliament was summoned after a general election and ending on the date of dissolution of that Parliament for the purpose of enabling the holding of another ordinary general election.
 

Part II  Members, Constituencies and Election of Members

 

[Title] Members of the National Assembly

 
Article 66 []
(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, there shall be the following categories of
Members of Parliament, that is to say:-
(a) members elected to represent, constituencies;
(b) women members being not less than fifteen percentum of the members mentioned in
paragraphs (a), (c) and (d) elected by the political parties represented in the National Assembly in terms of Article 78 and on the basis of proportional representation amongst those
parties;
(c) five members elected by the House of Representatives from among its members;
(d) the Attorney General.
(2) The President and the Vice-President shall each not be a Member of
Parliament.
(3) Where a Regional Commissioner is elected a Member of Parliament representing a constituency or where a Member of Parliament representing a constituency is appointed a Regional Commissioner, the National Assembly shall be deemed to consist of the requisite number of members and its proceedings shall be valid notwithstanding that the ordinary total number of members in terms of this Article shall have been reduced by reason of such election of the Regional Commissioner or such appointment of a constituency member.
 
Article 67 []
(l) Subject to the provisions contained in this Article, any person shall be qualified for election or appointment as a Member of the Parliament if he-
(a) is a citizen of the United Republic who has attained the age of twenty-one years and who can read and write in Kiswahili or English; and
(b) is a member of, and a candidate proposed by, a political party.
(2) A person shall not be qualified to be elected or appointed Member of Parliament if-
(a) such person possesses or voluntarily acquires the citizenship of any other country; or
(b) in accordance with a law applicable in the United Republic it has been formally certified that such person is of unsound mind; or
(c) such person has been convicted by any court in the United Republic and sentenced to death or to a term of imprisonment exceeding six months for a conviction of any offence however, styled involving dishonesty; or
(d) within a period of five years preceding the date of a General Election such person has been convicted and sentenced imprisonment for an offence involving dishonesty or for contravening the law concerning ethics of public leaders; or
(e) without prejudice to a person's right and freedom to hold his own views, to profess a religious faith of his choice, to associate with others and to participate in community work in accordance with the laws of the land, no person shall be qualified to be elected to the office of President of the United Republic if he is not a member of, and a candidate proposed by, a political party; or
(f) such person has interest in any Government contract of any kind in respect of which special restrictions are prescribed by Act of Parliament and he has contravened such restrictions; or
(g) such person holds a senior office in the service of the Government of the United Republic, not being an office to which the President may or is required to appoint a Member of Parliament in accordance with this Constitution or a law enacted by Parliament; or
(h) in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament dealing with offences concerning election of any kind such person has been disqualified from registering as a voter or from voting in a
Parliamentary election.
(3) A person shall not be competent to contest for election as a constituency Member of Parliament at any general election if he is at the same time contesting for election to the office of President, nor shall he be competent to contest for election as a Member of Parliament at any by-election if be is President.
(4) Parliament may enact legislation making provisions disqualifying a person from being elected Member of Parliament representing a constituency if such person holds an office whose functions involve the conduct of, or supervision over, the election of Members of Parliament or the registration of voters for the elections of Members of Parliament; save that such legislation shall not make provision disqualifying the Speaker from being elected
Member of Parliament representing a constituency nor make provisions which cause a person elected Speaker to vacate that office of Speaker or his ordinary seat as Member of Parliament.
(5) Parliament may enact legislation for the purpose of making provisions for the disqualification of a person from being elected a Member of Parliament representing a constituency for any period, to be specified by Parliament (save that such period shall not
exceed five years) if such person shall be convicted by a court for any type of offences, in connection with the election of Members of Parliament, as specified in that legislation.
(6) For the purposes of giving opportunity to appeal according to law to any person who has been formally certified to be of unsound mind, or convicted and sentenced to death or imprisonment, or convicted for any offence specified under the law in terms of sub-
article (5) of this Article, Parliament may enact legislation providing that such judgment being appealed against by that person shall have no effect for the purposes of the provisions of sub-article (2) or (5) of this Article until the expiration of the period to be specified in such
legislation.
(7) The following rules shall apply for the purposes of interpreting paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of sub-article (2) of this Article, that is to say-
(a) where a person has been awarded two or more prison sentences to run consecutively, such
sentences shall be regarded to be separate provided that each of the sentences does and exceed six months; but if the period specified in any of the sentences exceeds six months, such sentences shall be regarded as one sentence;
(b) if a person is sentenced to imprisonment where he could other wise have been sentenced to a fine, or where the sentence of imprisonment is imposed for failure to pay a fine ordered, them, such period of imprisonment shall not be taken into account.
(8) In paragraph (f) of sub-article (2) of this Article contractmeans any contractual agreement in which one of the parties is the Government of the United Republic, or the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar or any department of that Government or any officer of the Government who has taken part on behalf of the Government.
(13) For the purposes of interpretation of the qualifications for election contained in the following Articles whenever it is stated in this Constitution that the implementation of any matter requires a person who has the qualification for election, or a person who has not been disqualified from election, then unless the context requires otherwise, it shall be understood
that the qualifications concerned are those which enable a person to be elected a Member representing a constituency as provided in sub-article (1) of this Article.
 
Article 68 []
Every member of Parliament shall be required to take and subscribe before the National Assembly the Oath of allegiance before commencing to take part in the business of the National Assembly save that he may take part in the election of Speaker before taking that oath.
 
Article 69 []
(1) Every Member of Parliament shall be required before the expiration of thirty days since taking oath as Member of Parliament to submit to the Speaker two copies of a formal
declaration that he has not lost the qualifications for election in terms of Paragraph (d) of sub-article (2) of Article 67.
(2) The formal declaration required to be submitted to the Speaker shall be made on a special form prescribed in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
(3) The Speaker shall transmit to the Ethics Commissioner a copy of every formal declaration submitted to him in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(4) In this Article and in Articles 70 and 84 Ethics Commissionermeans the Commissioner appointed to head the Ethics Secretariat referred to in Article 132 of this Constitution.
 
Article 70 []
(1) Every Member of Parliament shall be required to submit to the Speaker two copies of a formal statement regarding his property and the property of his spouse.  The statement shall be made on a special form prescribed by law enacted by Parliament and shall be submitted from time to time as shall be directed by such law.
(2) The Speaker shall transmit to the Ethics Commissioner, a copy of every formal statement submitted to him in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation for the purposes of making provisions designed for the protection of the statement of property submitted by a Member of Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this Article and to ensure that persons unauthorized or not concerned do not get the opportunity to see the statement of property or know its contents.
 
Article 71 []
(1) A Member of Parliament shall cease to be Member of Parliament and shall vacate his seat in National Assembly upon the occurrence of any of following matters:
(a) where anything happens which, had he not been a Member of Parliament would have disqualified him from election, or would make him lose the qualifications for election, or would disqualify him from election or appointment in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution;
(b) where such Member of Parliament is elected President;
(c) where a Member of Parliament fails to attend three consecutive meetings of the National Assembly without the permission of the Speaker;
(c) where it is established that he has contravened the provisions of the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(e) where a Member of Parliament ceases to be a member of the party to which he belonged when he was elected or appointed to be a Member of Parliament;
(I) where a Member of Parliament is elected or appointed Vice- President;
(g) in the case of a Member of Parliament who is required to submit a formal statement of property in accordance with the provisions of Article 70, if he fails to make such formal statement in accordance with the provisions of that Article within the period prescribed for
that purpose by a law enacted by Parliament, but where a Member of Parliament does not cease to be a Member of Parliament on account of any of those matters mentioned and
if he does not sooner resign or die, then he shall continue to hold Office as Member of
Parliament until the next general election.
(2) Parliament may enact a law for the purpose of making provisions enabling a Member of Parliament to appeal according to law, against a decision which confirms that he is a person of unsound mind, against a sentence of death or imprisonment or against conviction for an offence of the type referred to in provisions of sub-article (5) of Article 67 of this Constitution, and that law may provide that the decision appealed against by the Member of Parliament shall have no effect in law until the expiration of the period prescribed in that
law.
 
Article 72 []
Where any person holding office in the service of the Government which office is of the type mention in Article 67(2) (g) decides-
(a) to contest for election to the office of President or any other office under this
Constitution; or
(b) to contest for leadership at any level in a political party contrary to  terms of employment, the employment of such person shall be considered to have ceased from the date of his becoming a  candidate or of contesting for leadership in the political party.
 
Article 73 []
All Members of Parliament of all categories shall hold office in accordance with this Constitution, and shall be paid a salary, allowances and other remuneration in accordance
with a law enacted by Parliament.
 

[Title]  Electoral Commission

 
Article 74 []
(1) There shall be an Electoral Commission of the United Republic which shall consist of following members to be appointed by the President:
(a) a Judge of the High Court or a Justice of the Court of Appeal, who shall be the chairman;
(b) a Vice-Chairman;
(c) other members to be specified by a law enacted by Parliament.
(2) The President shall appoint the Vice - Chairman of the Electoral Commission on the basis of the principle that where the Chairman hails from one part of the Union, the Vice-Chairman shall be a person who hails from the other part of the Union.
(3) The following persons shall not be eligible for appointment as members of the Electoral commission, that is to say-
(a) a Minister or Deputy Minister;
(b) a person holding any kind of office specified by a law enacted by Parliament prohibiting a person holding such office to be appointed a member of Electoral Commission;
(c) a Member of Parliament, a Councilor or other person holding the kind of office specified by a law enacted by Parliament in terms of the provisions of paragraph (g) of sub-article (2) of Article 67 of this Constitution: and
(d) a leader of any political party.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, a member of the Electoral Commission shall cease to be a member whenever any of the following occurs-
(a) upon the expiration of five years since his appointment, or
(b) where anything happens which had he not been a member of the Commission would have made him ineligible for appointment to  be a member of the Commission.
(5) The President may remove a member of the Electoral Commission from office only for failing to discharge his functions either due to illness or any other reason or due to misconduct or loss of the qualifications for being a member.
(6) The responsibilities of the Commission shall be:
(a) to supervise and co-ordinate registration of voters in Presidential and Parliamentary elections in the United Republic;
(b) to supervise and co-ordinate the conduct of the Presidential and Parliamentary election;
(c) to review the boundaries and demarcate the United Republic into various areas for the purposes of Parliamentary elections;
(d) to supervise and co-ordinate registration of voters and the conduct of the election of
(e) to perform any other functions in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
(7) For the better carrying out of its functions, the Electoral Commission shall be an autonomous department, and its chief executive shall be the Director of Elections who shall be appointed and shall discharge duties accordance with a law enacted by
Parliament.
(8) Parliament may enact legislation providing the procedure for supervising the election of Members of Parliament representing constituencies.
(9) The Electoral Commission may discharge its functions notwithstanding that there is a vacancy among its membership or that one of its members is absent provided that every decision of the Commission must be supported by a majority of all the members of Commission.
(10) Parliament may enact legislation providing for the procedure of appointing delegates to supervise elections of constituency Members of Parliament and subject to the provisions of any legislation or the directions of the Electoral Commission, the powers of the Electoral Commission to supervise the elections may be exercised by such delegates.
(11) In discharging its functions in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, the Electoral Commission shall not be obliged to comply with orders or directions of any
person or any Government department or the views of any political party.
(12) No court shall have power to inquire into anything done by the Electoral Commission in the discharge of its functions in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(13) In the discharge of its functions in accordance with this Constitution, the Electoral Commission of the United Republic shall, from time to time, consult with the Electoral
Commission of Tanzania Zanzibar.
(14) It is hereby prohibited for persons concerned with the conduct of elections to join any political party, save only that each of them shall have the right to vote which is specified in Article 5 of this Constitution.
(15) For the purposes of sub-article (14) the persons concerned with the conduct of elections are:
(a) the Chairman of the Electoral Commission
(b)  the Vice-Chairman of the Electoral Commission;
(c)  all time members of the Electoral Commission;
(d)  the Director of Elections together with all other employees of  Electoral Commission; and
(e)  all supervisors of elections in all towns and districts.
 

[Title]  Constituencies

 
Article 75 []
(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, the United Republic shall be demarcated into constituencies of such number and in such manner as shall be determined by the Electoral Commission after obtaining the consent of the President.
(2) Subject to any relevant law, the Electoral Commission shall have the power to demarcate boundaries of constituencies after obtaining the consent the President.
(3) In demarcating the boundaries of constituencies, the Electoral Commission shall take due account of the availability of means of communication also the geographical conditions of the area intended demarcation into constituencies.
(4) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and any law concerning the demarcation of the country into constituencies, the Electoral Commission may from time to time and at least after every ten years review demarcation of the United Republic into constituencies and may alter the constituencies as a result of that review or as result of a census conducted in the United Republic.
(5) If after a review of the demarcation of United Republic into constituencies alterations are made in the constituencies, or in the number of the Members of Parliament representing constituencies or in the number of constituencies or the number of Members of Parliament, then the resultant alteration in the number of Members of Parliament representing those constituencies shall take effect when Parliament is dissolved again following the occurrence of the alteration in the number of constituencies or in the number of Members of Parliament representing constituencies.
(6) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, no court shall have power to inquire into anything done by the Electoral Commission in its discharge of the function of demarcating the United Republic into constituencies.
 

[Title]  Election and Appointment of Members of Parliament

 
Article 76 []
(1) After every dissolution of Parliament there shall be held an election of a Member of Parliament in every constituency.
(2) Likewise there shall be held an election of a Member of Parliament in a constituency whenever the seat of any' Member of Parliament representing that constituency falls vacant for any reason not connected with the dissolution of Parliament.
(3) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, it is hereby declared that where the date for dissolution of Parliament has been proclaimed or is known on account of the events specified in sub-article (3) of Article 90, then no such election shall take place during the whole period of six months immediately preceding the date of the dissolution of Parliament.
 
Article 77 []
(1) Members of Parliament representing constituencies shall be elected by the people in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and also the provisions of a law enacted by Parliament pursuant to this Constitution to regulate the election of Members of Parliament representing constituencies.
(2) Save where the Electoral Commission, in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution or of a law enacted by Parliament in that behalf directs otherwise, there shall be
elected only one Member of Parliament in a Constituency.
(3) Candidates for election to a constituency shall be required to fulfil the following conditions:
(a) they shall be proposed, one each, by a political party taking part in the election in that
constituency; and
(b) they shall have submitted their names to the Electoral Commission in accordance with the
procedure laid down by a law enacted by Parliament or procedures prescribed by the Electoral Commission in accordance with law.
 
Article 78 []
(1) For the purposes of the election of women Members of Parliament mentioned in Article 66(1) (b), political parties which took part in the election shall in accordance with the procedure laid down propose to the Electoral Commission the names of women on the basis of the proportional representation among the parties which won elections in constituencies and secured seats in the National Assembly. If the Commission is satisfied that any person so proposed has the qualifications to be Member of Parliament it shall declare that that person has been elected Member of Parliament and the provisions of Article 83 of this Constitution shall apply in connection with the election of that person to be Member of Parliament.
(2) No person may be proposed by any political party for the purposes of election in accordance with this Article save only if that person has the requisite qualifications for
election in terms of Article 67 of this Constitution.
(3) The names of the persons proposed to the Electoral Commission in accordance with sub-article (1) shall be declared to be the results of the election after the Commission is satisfied that the relevant provisions of the Constitution and of other legislation have been complied with.
 
Article 79 []
The House of Representatives shall prescribe the procedures which it shall follow for the purposes of the election of Members of Parliament mentioned in Article 66(1)
(c) of this Constitution.
 
Article 81 []
Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the Electoral Commission may make provisions specifying the procedure to be followed by the political parties for the purposes of electing and proposing the names of the kind of Members of Parliament provided for under Article 66(1) (b).
 
Article 83 []
(1) Every proceeding for the purposes of determining the question whether-
(a) the election or appointment of any person to be Member of Parliament
was valid or not; or
(b) a Member of Parliament has ceased to be a Member of Parliament and his
seat in the National Assembly is vacant, or not, shall, subject to the provisions of sub-article (2) of this Article, first be instituted and heard in the High Court of the United Republic.
(2) Where the Electoral Commission, in the discharge of its functions in accordance with the provisions of Article 41(3) of this Constitution has declared any Member of Parliament to have been elected President, then no court or any other body shall inquire further into any question concerning the seat of that Member of Parliament being vacant.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation providing for the following matters:
(a) persons who may institute proceedings in the High Court seeking for determination of any question in accordance with the provisions of this Article;
(b) the grounds and times for instituting such proceedings, procedure for instituting proceedings and conditions which have to be fulfilled in respect of every such proceeding; and
(c) prescribing the powers of the High Court over such proceedings and specifying the procedure for the hearing of the matter itself.
(4) There shall be a right of appeal to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania against a decision of the High Court in any matter which was heard in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
 

Part III  Procedure, Powers and Privileges of Parliament

 

[Title] Speaker and Deputy Speaker

 
Article 84 []
(1) There shall be a Speaker of the National Assembly who shall be elected by the Members of Parliament from among persons who are Members of Parliament or who are qualified to be
Members of Parliament he shall be the Leader of the National Assembly and shall represent the National Assembly in all other institutions and meetings outside the National Assembly.
(2) A Minister, a Deputy Minister or a person holding any other office prescribed by a law enacted by Parliament for the purposes of this Article may not be elected Speaker.
(3) Any person elected Speaker shall be required, before the expiration of fifteen days of his election, to submit to the President a formal declaration that he has not lost the qualifications for election in terms of the provisions of paragraph (d) of sub-article (2) of Article 67. The declaration shall be made in a special form prescribed in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
(4) The President shall transmit to the Ethics Commissioner a copy of every formal declaration submitted to him in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article.
(5) The Speaker shall be required to submit to the President two copies of a formal statement regarding his property and that of his spouse. The Speaker shall submit such statement in a special form prescribed for that purpose in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament, and shall submit such statement from time to time as shall be directed by that law.
(6) The provisions of sub-articles (2) and (3) of Article 70 shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to any statement regarding property submitted by the Speaker in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(7) The Speaker shall cease to be Speaker and shall vacate his office upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
(a) where that person was elected from among Members of Parliament, he ceases to be a Member of Parliament for any reason other than the dissolution of Parliament; or
(b) if anything happens which, had he not been Speaker, would disqualify such person from election, or make him lose the qualifications for being elected Speaker; or
(c) when the National Assembly meets for the first time after a General Election held following the dissolution of Parliament, provided that the provisions of this paragraph shall operate subject to the provisions of sub-article (4) of Article 90 of this Constitution; or
(d) if that person is removed from the office of Speaker by a resolution of the National
Assembly supported by not less than two-thirds of all Members of Parliament;
(e) if that person fails to submit to President a formal declaration in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article; or
(f) if that person is convicted of the offence of perjury contrary to provisions of the Penal Code concerning any formal declaration submitted in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article; or
(g) if that person fails to submit to the President a statement regarding property in accordance with sub (5) of this sub - article before the expiration of the period stipulated for that purpose in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament; or
(h) if it is proved that that person contravened the provisions of the law concerning the ethics of public leaders.
(8) No business, other than the election of Speaker, shall be conducted in the National Assembly while the office of Speaker is vacant.
(9) Any person, not being a Member Parliament, who is elected Speaker shall be required before commencing to discharge the functions of his office to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance before National Assembly.
 
Article 85 []
(1) There shall be a Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly who shall be elected by Members from among Members of Parliament.
(2) A Minister, a Deputy Minister or a person holding any other office prescribed by a law enacted Parliament for the purpose of this Article, may not be elected Deputy Speaker.
(3) Members of Parliament shall elect a Deputy Speaker on the following occasions:
(a) when the National Assembly meets for the first time following a general election, or as soon as possible thereafter; and
(b) at the first sitting of the National Assembly after the office of Deputy Speaker falls vacant for any reason not connected with the dissolution of Parliament; or as soon as possible after that sitting.
(4) The Deputy Speaker shall cease to be Deputy Speaker and shall vacate the office of Deputy Speaker upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
(a) if that person ceases to be a Member of Parliament; or
(b) if anything happens which, had he not been Deputy Speaker would have disqualified him
from election or would make him lose the qualifications for being elected Deputy Speaker; or
(c) if that person is removed from the office of Deputy Speaker by a resolution of the National
Assembly.
 
Article 86 []
(1) There shall be held an election of the Speaker at the first sitting of the first meeting of a New Parliament and at any first sitting of the National Assembly immediately after the
occurrence of a vacancy  in the office of Speaker.
(2) There shall be held an election of the Deputy
Speaker at any time during the first meeting of the New Parliament, which time shall be appointed by the National Assembly, and during the first sitting of the National Assembly immediately after the office of Deputy Speaker falls vacant.
(3) The election of a Speaker as well as that Deputy Speaker shall be by secret ballot and shall conducted in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
 

[Title] Office of Parliament

 
Article 87 []
(1) There shall be a Clerk of the National Assembly who shall be appointed by the President among persons holding high office in the service of Union Government.
(2) The Clerk of the National Assembly shall be Chief Executive in the office of the National Assembly, and shall be responsible for the efficient discharge of business of Parliament in conformity with the provisions of this Constitution and of the relevant law.
 
Article 88 []
(l) There shall be a Secretariat of the Assembly which shall consist of such number of offices within the service of the Government as the President may direct.
(2) The Secretariat of the National Assembly shall consist of officers of such number and grades as may be determined from time to time by the relevant Service Commission after consultation with the Clerk of the National Assembly.
(3) The Secretariat of the National Assembly, under the leadership of the Clerk of the National Assembly, shall discharge all duties and functions prescribed or as may be
necessary for the purpose of ensuring the efficient discharge  by the National Assembly and Members of Parliament of the functions of Parliament under this Constitution.
 

[Title] Procedure in the National Assembly

 
Article 89 []
(l) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the National Assembly may make Assembly
Standing Orders for the purpose of prescribing procedure for the conduct of its business.
(2) Standing Orders made pursuant to this Article may prescribe procedure for the supervision of the discharge of the functions of the Secretariat of the National Assembly and also of the discharge of the business of the National Assembly in the National Assembly and those of its
committees and sub-committees.
 
Article 90 []
(l) After a general election, the President shall summon a New Parliament to meet before the expiration of seven days following the declaration of the results of the general election in all constituencies save in those constituencies where the elections are countermanded and commenced afresh.
(2) The President shall not have power to dissolve Parliament at any time save only-
(a) if the life of Parliament has expired in terms of Article 65 of the Constitution or at any time within the last twelve months of the life of Parliament, save only if the Speaker receives a formal notice under Article 46A of this Constitution proposing the formation of a Special Committee of Inquiry with a view to impeaching the President;
(b) if the National Assembly refuses to approve a budget proposed by the Government;
(c) if Parliament fails to pass a Bill in terms of the provisions of Article 97 (4);
(d) if the National Assembly declines to pass a motion which is of fundamental importance
to Government policies and the President considers that the way out is not to appoint another Minister but to call for a general election; or
(e) if, having regard to the proportional representation of political parties in National Assembly the President considers that it is no longer legitimate for the Government in power to continue in office, and it is not feasible to form a new Government.
(3) Upon the expiration of the life of Parliament, Parliament shall stand dissolved: Save that if the life of Parliament expires at any time when the United Republic is at war, the National Assembly may, from time to time, extend the period mentioned in Article 65 of this Constitution for a period not exceeding twelve months each time; provided that the life of Parliament shall not be extended under the provisions of this sub-article for a period of more than five years.
(4) If an emergency arises or exists which, in the opinion of the President, necessitates the summoning of a Parliament at a time when Parliament stands dissolved, and the majority of
results in the general election following the dissolution have not been declared, the President may by Proclamation, summon Parliament and direct that the Speaker and all the persons who were the Members of Parliament immediately before the dissolution of Parliament attend such meeting of Parliament and such persons together with the Speaker shall be deemed to be the Members of the National Assembly for the purposes of that meeting and shall be so deemed until midnight of the day the majority of the results of the general election are declared.
 
Article 91 []
(1) The President shall address the New Parliament at its first meeting and inaugurate it.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-article (1), the President may, at any time, address the National Assembly or send to the House a communication which shall be read by a Minister.
 
Article 92 []
(1) The National Assembly shall hold its meetings at the place where it is customary to hold such meetings or at any other place in the United Republic as the President may designate in that behalf.
(2) The first meeting of the National Assembly in the life of Parliament shall commence on the day for which Parliament is summoned to meet, and every subsequent meeting shall commence on such date as may be specified by the National Assembly or on any day that shall be appointed in accordance with the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
(3) The President may at any time summon a meeting of the National Assembly.
 
Article 93 []
Every sitting of the National Assembly shall be presided over by any one of the following persons, that is to say-
(a) the Speaker; or
(b) if the Speaker is absent, the Deputy Speaker; or if both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are absent, any Member of Parliament who has been elected for that purpose, but a Minister or a Deputy Minister or a person holding any other type of office specified by any law enacted by Parliament for the purpose of this Article may not be elected under the provisions of this paragraph.
 
Article 94 []
(1) The quorum at every sitting of the National Assembly shall be half of all the Members of Parliament.
(2) Except where it is provided otherwise in this Constitution, every question proposed for decision in the National Assembly shall be determined by a majority of the votes of the Members of Parliament present and voting.
(3) The Speaker, Deputy Speaker or any other person presiding over the sitting of the National Assembly shall not have a deliberative vote but shall have a casting vote in the
event of an equality of votes.
(4) The Standing Orders of the National Assembly may provide that any Member of Parliament who votes on any matter in which he has a personal interest shall be deemed not
to have voted.
 
Article 95 []
The National Assembly may conduct business during its sittings notwithstanding any vacant seat in the National Assembly (whether the seat became vacant since or after the first meeting following the General Election) and if in such business any person who is not entitled takes part or if during that business any person who is not entitled is present, then the participation or presence of that person shall not invalidate the business.
 
Article 96 []
(1) The National Assembly may establish various Standing Committees as it may deem appropriate for the better discharge of its functions.
(2) The Standing Orders of the National Assembly may provide for the composition and functions of the Standing Committees established pursuant to the provisions of this Article.
 

[Title]  Legislative Procedure

 
Article 97 []
(1) Subject to the provisions contained in this Constitution, the National Assembly shall exercise its legislative power through the process of debating and passing Bills which
eventually shall have to be assented to by the President, and a Bill shall not become law unless it is so passed by the National Assembly and assented to by the President in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(2) After a Bill is presented to the President for his assent, the President may either assent to the Bill or withhold his assent, and in the event the President with holds his assent to a Bill, he shall return it to the National Assembly together with a statement of his reasons for withholding his assent to the Bill.
(3) After a Bill is returned to the National Assembly pursuant to the provisions of this Article, it shall not be presented again to the President for his assent before the expiration of six months since it was so returned, except if at the last stage in the National Assembly before it is again presented to the President it is supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the Members of Parliament.
(4) If a Bill is returned to the National Assembly by the President, and it is then supported in the National Assembly by not less than two-thirds of all Members of Parliament as provided in sub-article (3) and it is presented a second time to the President for assent within six months of its being so returned, then the President shall be obliged to assent to the Bill within twenty-one days of its being presented to him, otherwise he shall have to dissolve Parliament.
(5) The provisions contained in this Article or in Article 64 of this Constitution shall not prevent Parliament from enacting laws making provisions conferring on any person or department of Government the power to make regulations having the force of law or conferring the force of law on any regulations made by any person, or any department of
Government.
 
Article 98 []
(1) Parliament may enact legislation for altering any provision of this Constitution in accordance with the following principles:
(a) A Bill for an Act to alter any provisions of this Constitution (other than those relating
to paragraph (b) of this sub-article) any provisions of any law specified in List One of the Second Schedule to this Constitution sha11 be supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the Members of Parliament;
(b) A Bill for an Act to alter any provisions of this Constitution or provisions of any law relating to of the matters specified in List Two of the Second Schedule to this Constitution shall be passed only if is supported by the votes of not than two-thirds of all Members Parliament from Mainland and Tanzania and not less than two-thirds of Members of Parliament  from Tanzania Zanzibar.
(2) For the purposes of construing the of sub-article (1), alteration of provisions of Constitution or the provisions of a law shall be understood to include modification, or correction of those provisions or repeal and replacement of those provisions or re-
enactment or the modification of the application of provisions.
 
Article 99 []
(1) The National Assembly shall not deal with any of the matters to which this Article relates except if President has proposed that the matter be dealt with by the National Assembly and the proposal has been submitted the National Assembly by a Minister.
(2) The matters to which this Article relate are the following:
(a) a Bill to enact a law providing for any of the following
(i) to levy a tax or to alter otherwise than by reduction
(ii) the imposition of any charge upon the Consolidated Fund or any other public fund or the alteration of any such charge otherwise than by reduction;
(iii)  the payment, issue or withdrawal from the Consolidated Fund or any other public fund of any moneys not charged thereon, or any increase in the amount of such payment, issue or withdrawal;
(iv) the composition or remission of any debt due or payable to the United Republic;
(b) a motion or any amendment of a motion for the purposes of any of the matters referred
to in paragraph (a) of this sub-article.
(3) The provisions of this Article shall not apply to a Bill or any amendment to a Bill introduced by or a motion or an amendment to a motion moved by a Minister or a Deputy
Minister.
 

[Title]  Powers and Privileges of Parliament

 
Article 100 []
(1) There shall be freedom of opinion, debate in the National Assembly, and that freedom shall not be breached or questioned by any organ in the United Republic or in any court or
elsewhere outside the National Assembly.
(2) Subject to this Constitution or to the provisions of any other relevant law, a Member of  Parliament shall not be prosecuted and no civil Proceedings may be instituted against him
in a court in relation to any thing which he has said or done in the National Assembly or has submitted to the National Assembly by way of a petition, bill, motion or otherwise.
 
Article 101 []
Parliament may enact a law making provisions to enable the court and the law to preserve and enforce freedom of opinion, debate and procedure of business in the National Assembly which in terms of Article 100 is guaranteed by this Constitution.
 

Chapter IV  The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, The Zanzibar Revolutionary Council and the House of Representatives of Zanzibar

 

Part I  The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and the President of Zanzibar

 
Article 102 []
(1) There shall be an Executive for Zanzibar which shall Government be known as Revolutionary Government of Zanzibarwhich shall have authority in Zanzibar over all matters which are not Union matters in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) Subject to the provisions contained in and the following Articles in this Chapter of this Constitution the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar; shall be constituted and shall exercise its authority accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and the
Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984.
 
Article 103 []
(1) There shall be a Head of the Executive for Zanzibar who shall be the President of Zanzibar and Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and also the Chairman of
the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council.
(2) The Head of the Revolutionary Government of, Zanzibar shall, before assuming office, subscribe the oath before the Chief Justice of Zanzibar to protect and defend the Constitution of the United Republic and any other oath in accordance with the Constitution of Zanzibar in connection with the execution of his duties, and then shall assume office and discharge those functions in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984.
(3) In addition to his other powers, the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar shall have the power to appoint and assign responsibilities to Ministers and Deputy Ministers of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
 
Article 104 []
(1) The Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar shall be elected by the people in Tanzania Zanzibar in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984, and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by legislation enacted by the House of Representatives of Zanzibar which relates to the election in general or to the election of the
Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the office of the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar shall be vacant, and the election of the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar shall be held to fill the vacancy upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
(a) the dissolution of the House of Representatives;
(b) the resignation of the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar without first dissolving the House of Representatives;
(c) the disqualification of the Head of the Revolutionary of Zanzibar from elective office;
(d) the impeachment of the Head Revolutionary Government Zanzibar by the House of
Representatives in accordance the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984 and his removal from office;
(e) the certification pursuant to the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, that the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar is to discharge his duties and functions; or
(f) the death of Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
 

Part II  The Zanzibar Revolutionary Council

 
Article105 []
(l) There shall be a Zanzibar Council which shall consist of the following members:
(a) the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council;
(b) the Chief Minister  of the Revolutionary Government  of Zanzibar:
(c) all Ministers of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar:
(d) other members to be appointed by the Chairman of Revolutionary Council in accordance
with the provisions of the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984.
(2) Without prejudice to the powers of the Chairman of the Revolutionary Council as Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, the Revolutionary Council shall be the principal organ for advising the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar regarding all matters concerning the exercise of his functions of leadership and supervision over the affairs of the Executive for Zanzibar and also in the discharge of his functions over all affairs of Government concerning all matters which are not  Union Matters in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution and those of the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984.
 

Part III  The House representatives Zanzibar

 
Article 106 []
(1) There shall be a House of Representatives of Zanzibar.  The House of Representatives shall comprise two parts: one part shall consist of Members of the House elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, and shall be referred to as Representatives; the other part of the House of Representatives shall be the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar in the exercise of his functions pursuant to the provisions of this  constitution and the provisions of the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984.
(2) Whenever pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution, the provisions of the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, or the provisions of any law enacted and in force in Zanzibar, any matter requires to be decided or done by both parts of the house of Representatives, then that matter shall not be to have been duly decided and done unless it is decided and done unless it is decided or done by the Members of the House of Representatives and also by the Head of the  Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar in accordance with their respective authority in relation to that matter.
(3) All legislative authority in Zanzibar over all matters which are not Union Matters is hereby vested in the House of Representatives of Zanzibar.
 
Article 107 []
(1) The President of Zanzibar as one part of the House of Representatives of Zanzibar shall exercise the authority vested in him by this Constitution and also by the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984, for that purpose.
(2) The members of the House of Representatives as the second part of the House Representatives shall be the principal organ for Tanzania Zanzibar which shall have
authority on behalf of the people in Tanzania Zanzibar to oversee and advise the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and all its organs in the discharge of their
respective responsibilities accordance with this Constitution and the Constitution Zanzibar, 1984.
(3) For the purposes of discharging its functions, the House of Representatives may-
(a) put to any Minister of Revolutionary Government Zanzibar any question
concerning public affairs in Tanzania Zanzibar which are within his responsibility.
(b) debate on the performance of each Ministry of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar
during the annual budget session of the House of Representatives;
(c) deliberate upon and authorize any long or short term plan which is intended to be implemented in Tanzania Zanzibar and enact a law to regulate the implementation of that
plan;
(d) enact legislation where implementation requires legislation.
 

Chapter V  The High Court of the United Republic, the Judicial Service Commission for Mainland Tanzania, the High Court for Zanzibar, the Court of Appeal of the United Republic and the Special Constitutional Court of the United Republic

 

Part I  Tile High Court of the United Republic

 
Article 108 []
(1) There shall be a High Court of the United Republic (to be referred to in short as High Courtthe jurisdiction of which shall be as specified in this Constitution or in any other law.
(2) If this Constitution or any other law does not expressly provide that any specified matter shall first be heard by a court specified for that purpose, then the High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear every matter of such type. Similarly, the High Court shall have jurisdiction to deal with any matter which, according to legal traditions obtaining in Tanzania, is ordinarily dealt with by a High Court; save that, the provisions of this sub-article shall apply without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal of Tanzania as providing for in this Constitution or in any other law.
 
Article 109 []
(1) There shall be a Principal Judge of the High Court (who in the following provisions of the
Constitution shall be referred to as the Judge) and other Judges of he High Court who shall be not less than fifteen.
(2) The Principal Judge and other Judges of the High Court shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution or any other law concerning the powers of the Chief Justice who is referred to in Article 118, the Principal Judge shall be the special assistant to the Chief Justice the administration of the High Court and of all the other courts subordinate to it, and in the discharge of the functions of that office, the Principal Judge shall perform such functions and duties as he may, from time to time, be instructed or directed by the Chief Justice and, for the purposes of this Article, the Principal Judge shall also be known as the Head of the High Court.
(4) In addition to his ordinary powers as a Judge of the High Court, the Principal Judge shall also have power to perform all such duties and functions related to the jurisdiction of the High Court which, in accordance with the legal traditions applicable, are matters which are required to be performed by the head of the High Court: save that the provisions of this sub-article shall not apply in relation to the discharge of duties or functions which, in terms of the provisions of this Constitution or of any other law or accordance with legal traditions obtaining in Tanzania are expressly stated or are deemed to be the duties or functions required to be performed only by the Chief Justice.
(5) For the avoidance of doubt in relation to the interpretation or application of the provisions of sub-article (3) and (4), of this Article, it is hereby declared that except where this Constitution or any other law provides otherwise, the Chief Justice may, from time to time, give the Principal Judge directions or instructions concerning the discharge of his duties and functions as head of the High Court. Likewise the Chief Justice may delegate to the Principal
Judge some of his administrative and supervisory powers in relation to the discharge of functions in the High Court and in all other courts subordinate to it, and whenever necessary the Chief Justice may himself discharge directly any of the functions so delegated to the Principal Judge.
(6) The office of Judge of the High Court shall not be abolished while there is a person holding that office.
(7) Subject to the provisions of sub-article (9) of this Article a person may only be appointed Judge of the High Court if he has special qualifications as defined in Sub-article (8) of this
Article, and has held one of those special qualifications for a period of not less than five years.
(8) For the purposes of construing sub-articles (7), (9) and 11) of this Article qualificationsmeans the qualifications prescribed in the Advocates Ordinance (or any
other law amending or replacing that Ordinance) one of which a person must possess in order to qualify for enrolment as an advocate in Mainland Tanzania.
(9) Where the President is satisfied that a person holding one of the special qualifications has not held that qualification for a period of not less than five years, but that that person has the
ability, knowledge and in every respect is suitable for appointment as Judge of the High Court, and there are reasons which make such person deserve to be so appointed, then the President may dispense with the requirement that such person shall have held the special qualifications for a period of not less than five years, and may after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission appoint that person Judge of the High Court.
(10) In the event that the office of Principal Judge falls vacant or that the Principal Judge is for any reason unable to perform the functions of his office, then, those functions shall be performed by one of the Judges who shall be appointed by the President for that purpose and that Judge so appointed shall perform those functions until a new Principal Judge is appointed and assumes the office of Principal Judge, or until the Principal Judge who was unable to perform his functions resumes office.
(11) In the event that the office of any Judge falls vacant or that any Judge is appointed Acting Principal Judge or is for any reason unable to perform the functions of his office, or if the Chief Justice advises the President that the  state of business then obtaining in the High Court requires the appointment of an Acting Judge, the President may after consulting the Chief Justice in the usual manner, appoint an Acting Judge from amongst persons holding the special qualifications: Provided that-
(a) a person shall not be deemed to be disqualified from appointment in accordance with the provisions of this sub-article for the reason only that he has attained the age specified sub-article (1) of Article 110 of this constitution.
(b) for the purpose of appointing an Acting Judge in accordance with the provisions of this sub-article, the President may dispense with the requirement of holding the special qualifications for a period of five years for the same reasons as those set out sub-
article (9) of this Article.
(12) Any person appointed Acting Judge pursuant to the provisions of sub-article (1) of this Article shall continue to hold the office of Acting Judge for any period so specified in his appointment or if no period is specified, until his appointment is revoked by the President, but notwithstanding that his term of office has expired or that his appointment has been revoked, that person may continue to perform functions as Acting Judge until he has completed the preparation and delivery of a decision or until he completes any other business connected with matters which he had started hearing before his term of office expired or before his appointment was revoked.
 
Article 110 []
(1) Every Judge of the High Court shall vacate office on attaining the age of sixty years, but the provisions of this sub-article shall apply subject to the subsequent provisions of this Article.
(2) Any Judge of the High Court may vacate office in the service of the United Republic at any time on attaining the age of fifty five years except where the President directs that he
should not vacate office, and if the President so directs, then the Judge to whom the directions of the President relate shall not be entitled to vacate office until the expiry of the period specified by the President for that purpose.
(3) In the event that the President considers it to be in the public interest that a Judge who has attained sixty years of age continues in office, and the Judge agrees in writing to continue in office, then the President may direct that the judge continues in office for any period which may be specified by the President.
(4) Notwithstanding that a Judge has attained the age at which he is required by the provisions of this Article to vacate office, a person who was holding the office of Judge of the High Court may continue to perform the functions of that office after attaining that age until he completes the preparation and delivery of the decision or until he completes any other
business in connection with matters which he had started hearing before attaining that age.
(5) A Judge of the High Court may be removed from office only for inability to perform the functions of his office (either due to illness or to any other reason) or for misbehavior
inconsistent with the ethics of office of Judge or with the law concerning the ethics of public
leaders and he shall not be so removed except in accordance with the provisions of sub-
article (7) of this Article.
(6) If the President considers that the question of the removal of a Judge from office needs to be investigated, then the procedure shall be as follows:
(a) the President shall appoint a Tribunal which will consist of  a Chairman and not less than two members.  The Chairman and at least half of the other members of the Special Tribunal shall be persons who are Judges of the High Court or of the Court of Appeal in any country within the Commonwealth;
(b) the Special Tribunal shall investigate the matter and make a report to the President, advising on the whole matter, and shall advise him who or not the Judge concerned should be removed from office in accordance with the provisions of this Article on the grounds of inability to perform his functions due to illness or any other reason or on grounds of
misbehavior.
(7) If the Special Tribunal appointed in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (6) advises the President that the Judge the subject of investigation by the Special Tribunal be removed from office on grounds of inability to perform functions due to illness or any other reason or on grounds of misbehavior, then the President shall remove that Judge from office.
(8) If the question of removing a Judge from office has been referred to a Special Tribunal for investigation pursuant to the provisions of sub-article (6) of this Article, the President may suspend the Judge concerned from duty, and the President may at any time rescind the decision to suspend such Judge, and in any case such decision shall lapse if the Special Tribunal advises the President that the Judge be not removed from office.
(9) The provisions of this article shall be without prejudice to the provisions of sub-article (12) of article 109 of this Constitution.
 
Article 111 []
A Judge of the High Courts shall not assume the functions of his office until he has first taken and subscribed the oath of allegiance and also such other oath concerning the discharge of his duties as may be prescribed in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
 

Part II  Power to appoint Magistrates and other Judicial Officers in Mainland Tanzania and the Judicial Service Commission

 
Article 112[]
(1) There shall be a Judicial Service Commission for Magistrates and other Judicial Officers in Mainland Tanzania. The members of the Commission shall be the following:
(a) the Chief Justice who shall be the Chairman;
(b) the Attorney-General;
(c) a Justice of the Court of Appeal of Tanzania who shall be appointed in that behalf by the President after consultation with the Chief  Justice;
(d) the Principal Judge of the High Court; and
(e) two members who shall be appointed by the President.
(2) A person shall not qualify to be appointed member of the Commission under the provisions of paragraph (e) of sub-article
(1) of this Article, if he is a Member of Parliament or the holder of any other office prescribed in that behalf by a law enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 113 []
(1) Subject to the provisions of any law enacted by Parliament concerning the appointment of magistrates and other Judicial officers, the division of power for that purpose shall be as follows:
(a) the power to appoint persons to hold offices prescribed in sub-article (2) of this Article (including the power to confirm such persons in office and to promote them) is hereby
vested in the President;
(b) the exercise of disciplinary power over such persons and the power to remove them from office, is hereby vested in the Judicial Service Commission referred to in Article 112 of this Constitution.
(2) The offices to which this Article applies are the offices of the Registrar of the Court of Appeal of Tanzania and his Deputy of any grade, the offices of the Registrar of the High Court and his Deputy of any grade, the office of Resident Magistrate and of a magistrate of any other category, and any other office connected with any court (other than a court-martial) as may be specified by a law enacted by Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
 
Article 113A []
It is hereby prohibited for a Justice of the Court of Appeal, a Judge of the High Court or a magistrate of any grade to join any political party save only that he shall have the right to vote which is specified in Article 5 of this Constitution.
 

Part III  The High Court of Zanzibar

 
Article 114 []
For the purposes of construing the provisions of this Chapter of this Constitution, it is hereby declared that the provisions contained in this Chapter do not prevent the continuance or establishment, in accordance with the law applicable in Zanzibar of the High Court of Zanzibar or courts subordinate to it.
 
Article 115[]
(1) Subject to Articles 83 and 116 of this Constitution, the jurisdiction of the High Court of Zanzibar shall be as specified in the laws applicable in Zanzibar.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution or of any other law enacted by Parliament, where any law enacted by Parliament and which is applicable in Mainland Tanzania and
also in Tanzania Zanzibar vests any power in the High Court, then the High Court of Zanzibar may exercise that power concurrently with the High Court of the United Republic.
 

Part IV  The Court of Appeal of The United Republic

 
Article 116 []
(1) In this Fourth Part of the Fifth Chapter of this Constitution, and in the other parts of this Constitution, unless the context requires otherwise Judiciarymeans the Court of Appeal of the United Republic referred to in Article 117 of this Constitution (or in short the Court of Appeal), the High Court of the United Republic referred to in Article 108 of this Constitution (or in short the High Court) together with any other court subordinate to the High Court; Justicemeans the Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal, and includes an Acting Chief Justice or a Justice of Appeal temporarily deputizing for or performing the functions of Chief Justice; of Appealmeans a Justice of the Court of Appeal.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-article (3), tic Chief Justice shall have no power over any matter concerning the structure and administration of the day-to-day business of the courts established in accordance with the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, or any law Tanzania
Zanzibar.
(3) The Chief Justice shall from time to time consult with the Chief Justice of Zanzibar concerning the administration of the business of the Court of Appeal in general, and also concerning the appointment of Justices of Appeal.
 
Article 117 []
(1) There shall be a  Court of Appeal of the United Republic (to be referred to in short as Court Appealwhich shall have the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal as provided in this Constitution or any other law.
(2) The Court of Appeal shall not have any jurisdiction in arbitration of any matter which is to be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Article 126 of this Constitution concerning a dispute between this Government of the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
(3) The functions of the Court of Appeal shall be to hear and determine every appeal brought before it arising from the judgment or other decision of the High Court or of a magistrate with extended jurisdiction.
(4) A law enacted in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution by Parliament or by the House of Representatives of Zanzibar may make provisions stipulating procedure for lodging appeals in the Court of Appeal, the time and grounds for lodging the appeals, and
the manner in which such appeals shall be dealt with.
 
Article 118 []
(1) There shall be a Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal (who in the subsequent Articles of this Constitution shall be referred to in short as Chief Justiceand not less than two other Justices of Appeal; save that a full bench of the Court of Appeal shall consist of not less than five Justices of Appeal.
(2) The Chief Justice shall be appointed by the President, and shall be the head of' the Court of Appeal and of the Judiciary as defined in Article 116 of this Constitution.
(3) The other Justices of Appeal shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice, from among persons who qualify to be appointed Judges of the High Court of the United Republic as provided for in Article 109 of this Constitution or from among persons who qualify to be appointed Judges of the High Court of Zanzibar in accordance
with the law applicable in Zanzibar.
(4) Whenever-
(a) the office of Chief Justice is vacant, or
(b) the Chief Justice is absent from Tanzania; or
(c) the Chief Justice, for any reason, fails to discharge his duties, and if, in the duration of any of these three events, the President considers it appropriate to appoint a Chief Justice, the President may appoint an Acting Chief Justice from among persons who qualify to be appointed Justices of Appeal, and such Justice of Appeal shall perform the duties of the Chief Justice until another Chief Justice is appointed and assumes the functions of the Office of Chief Justice, or until the Chief Justice who was absent from Tanzania or was unable to discharge his duties resumes duty.
(5) In the event that any office of Justice of Appeal falls vacant or that any Justice of Appeal is appointed Acting Chief Justice or is for any reason unable to exercise the functions of his office, or if the Chief Justice advises the President that the state of business then obtaining in the Court of Appeal requires the appointment of an Acting Justice of Appeal, the President may, after consulting with the Chief Justice in the usual manner appoint a person Acting Justice of Appeal from among persons holding special qualifications in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article.
(6) Any person appointed Acting Justice of Appeal pursuant to the provisions of sub-
article (5) of this Article shall continue to hold the office of Acting Justice of Appeal for any period specified at the time of his appointment, or where no period has been specified, until his appointment is revoked by the President, but not withstanding that the period of appointment has expired or that the appointment has been revoked, such person may continue to work as Acting Justice of Appeal for as long as may be necessary to enable him to prepare and deliver judgment or to do any other thing in relation to appeals or any other proceedings which were commenced before him prior to the expiration of such period, or the revocation of
his appointment.
(7) For the avoidance of doubt over the construction of the provisions of sub-article (1) of Article 118 of this Constitution (which stipulates the number of substantive Justices of Appeal) and the provisions of Article 119 of this Constitution (which specifies the jurisdiction of Justices of Appeal) it is hereby declared that an Acting Justice of Appeal appointed in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (5) of this Article, shall have full power of a Justice of Appeal and shall discharge duties as Acting Justice of Appeal notwithstanding that his appointment is in excess of the number of substantive Justices of Appeal specified in sub-article (1) of Article 118 of this Constitution, save that the provisions of this sub-article shall
apply subject to the provisions of Article 122 of this Constitution in relation to the quorum at sittings of the Court of Appeal.
(8) The office of Justice of Appeal shall not be abolished while there is a person holding that office.
 
Article 119 []
No Justice of Appeal of shall have jurisdiction to hear any matter in the High Court or in any magistrates' Court of any grade: Provided that where a Judge of the High Court is appointed Justice of Appeal he may, notwithstanding such appointment, discharge his functions in the High Court until he completes the preparation and delivery of the decision or until he completes any other business in connection with matters which he had started hearing before his appointment as a Justice of Appeal, and for that purpose it shall be lawful for him to deliver judgment or any other decision concerned in the exercise of the jurisdiction he had
before he was appointed Justice of Appeal; provided that where ultimately that judgment or decision is challenged by way of appeal to the Court of Appeal, then in such circumstances that Justice of Appeal shall not have jurisdiction to hear that appeal.
 
Article 120 []
(1) Every Justice of Appeal shall vacate his office upon attaining the age of sixty-five, but the provisions of this sub-article shall apply subject to the subsequent provisions of this Article.
(2) Any Justice of Appeal may vacate office in the service of the United Republic at any time on attaining the age of sixty five years except where the President directs that he should not vacate office, and if the President so directs, then the Justice to whom the directions of the President relate shall not be entitled to vacate office until the expiry of the period specified by the President for that purpose.
(3) In the event that the President considers it to be in the public interest that a Justice of Appeal who has attained sixty-five years of age continue in office, and the Justice of Appeal agrees in writing to continue in office then the President may direct that the Justice of Appeal continue in office for any period which may be specified by the President.
(4) Notwithstanding that a Justice of Appeal attained the age at which he is required by the provisions of this Article to vacate his office, a person who was holding the office of Justice of Appeal may continue to perform functions of that office after attaining that age until he completes the preparation and delivery of decision or until he completes any other business in connection with matter which he had started hearing before attaining that age.
(5) A Justice of Appeal may be removed from office only for inability to perform the functions of office, (either due to illness or to any other reason) misbehavior and shall not be
so removed from office save in accordance with the procedure similar to that provided in relation to the removal from office of a Judge of the High Court as specified in sub-
articles (6) and (7) of Article 110 this Constitution and for that purpose the provisions sub-article (8) of Article 110 of shall apply in relation to a Justice of Appeal in the same manner as they apply to a Judge of the High Court.
(6) The provisions of this Article shall be without prejudice to the provisions of sub-article (5) of Article 118 this Constitution.
 
Article 121 []
A Justice of Appeal shall not assume office unless he has taken and subscribed the oath of allegiance and such other oath as may be prescribed by legislation enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 122 []
(1) The quorum at every sitting of the Court of Appeal shall be not less than three Justices of Appeal.
(2) In every appeal a matter which requires the decision by the Court of Appeal shall be decided on the basis of the majority opinion of the Justices of Appeal hearing the appeal.
 
Article 123 []
A single Justice of Appeal may exercise any power vested in the Court of Appeal not involving the determination of an appeal; except that-
(a) in criminal matters, where a Justice of Appeal on an application for the exercise of those powers makes a decision which the applicant is dissatisfied with, then the applicant shall be
entitled to require to have his application determined by the full Court;
(b) in civil matters, the Court of Appeal may nullify or alter an order, direction, or decision of any other kind made by a single Justice of Appeal in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
 

Part V  Process of the Courts

 
Article 124 []
(1) The criminal and civil process, including warrants of arrest issued by the Courts in Mainland Tanzania and in Tanzania Zanzibar may be served and may be executed in any
place in Tanzania subject to the following provisions-
(a) where the court issues process to be served or executed in a place where it has no
jurisdiction, such process shall be sent to that place and the service or execution shall be effected in accordance with the procedure obtaining for service or execution of process issued by the court having jurisdiction in that area; and
(b) where the law applicable in the place where the process is sent required that a process issued by a court which has no jurisdiction be authenticated first by the court having local jurisdiction, then every process issued by the court elsewhere has to be authenticated
first in accordance with the before service or execution of such process.
(2) Where a person is arrested any where in Tanzania in accordance with an arrest warrant issued by court having no jurisdiction in the area of arrest, then the person so arrested shall be deemed to be in lawful custody and be brought before the court which issued the arrest 
warrant, but the provisions contained in this sub-article shall apply without prejudice to the provisions of the law applicable in the place of the arrest.
(3) The provisions contained in this Article shall not prevent the enactment of a law providing for the procedure of sending process outside Tanzania issued by the courts in Mainland Tanzania or Tanzania Zanzibar.
 

Part VI  The Special Constitutional Court of the United Republic

 
Article 125 []
There is hereby established the Special Constitutional Court of the United Republic whose jurisdiction, constitution and procedure shall be as specified in the provisions of Articles 126,
127, and 128 of the Constitution.
 
Article 126 []
(1) The sole function of the Special Constitutional Court of the United Republic is to hear and give a conciliatory decision over a matter referred to it concerning the interpretation of this
Constitution where such interpretation or its application is in dispute between the Government of the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
(2) In the exercise of its functions in accordance with the provisions of this Article, the Special Constitutional Court shall not have power to inquire into or to alter the decision of the High Court or the decision of the Court of Appeal which has been given in accordance with the provisions of Article 83 of this Constitution or the decision of the Court of Appeal which has been given in accordance with Article 117 of this Constitution.
(3) Every conciliatory decision given by the Special Constitutional Court pursuant to this Article shall be final; there shall be no right of appeal to any forum.
 
Article 127 []
(1) The Special Constitutional Court shall consist of members of whom one half shall be appointed by the Government of the United Republic and the other half shall be appointed by the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
(2) A person may be appointed to be a member of the Special Constitutional Court only if he holds or has previously held the office of Justice of Appeal, or of Judge of the High Court of the United Republic of Tanzania or of the High Court of Zanzibar or he is a person who has the ability and experience which qualify him to be appointed to the office of Judge or Acting Judge under the law for the time being in force, in Mainland Tanzania or in Zanzibar the case may be.
(3) A person may be appointed to be a member of the Special Constitutional Court for the purpose of hearing one dispute only or for hearing two or more disputes should they arise. A member shall continue to hold office as member of the Special Constitutional Court until the determination of the dispute in relation to which he is appointed or his appointment is revoked
or until he fails to perform his duties as a member due to illness or any other reason.
 
Article 128 []
(1) The Special Constitutional Court shall hold its sittings only when there is a dispute to be heard, and shall sit in any place to be decided upon in accordance with the procedure applicable for the purposes of hearing disputes submitted to the Special Constitutional Court.
(2) The quorum for every sitting of the Special Constitutional Court shall be all its members, and where any member is absent or the seat of any member is vacant, then the Government which had appointed that member who is absent or whose seat is vacant shall appoint another member to replace him. A temporary member appointed in accordance with this sub-article shall continue to hold office in the Special Constitutional Court until the substantive member resumes duty or until a person is appointed to fill the vacancy or until the dispute is determined, whichever of these events occurs earlier.
(3) Every matter requiring a decision of the Special Constitutional Court shall be determined on the basis of the opinion of two-thirds of the members appointed from Mainland
Tanzania and two-thirds of the members appointed Procedure of Special Constitutional Court.
(4) Parliament may enact legislation providing for the election of the Chairman of the Special Constitutional Court the procedure for the submission of disputes to the Court, the
procedure for the hearing of disputes and the procedure for the transmission of the decision of the Court to the Governments:
Save that where any matter is referred to the Special Constitutional Court before the enactment of the legislation referred to in this sub-article, the matter will be heard and
decided in accordance with the procedures to be decided upon by the Court itself before hearing the matter, or if members of the Court fail to agree on such procedure, then
the matter shall be heard and decided in accordance with the procedure to be decided upon by the Government of the United Republic in collaboration with the Government of Zanzibar.
 

Chapter VI  The Permanent Commission of Enquiry and the Public Leaders' Ethics Secretariat

 

Part I  The Permanent Commission of Enquiry

 
Article 129 []
(1) There is hereby established a Permanent  Commission of Enquiry which shall have jurisdiction to enquire into the conduct of any person to whom this Article applies, and such enquiry shall be made into the conduct of such person in respect of the ordinary performance of his duties or abuse of the authority of his office.
(2) The Commission shall enquire into the conduct of any person concerned whenever it is directed by the President to do so; and may, unless the President directs otherwise, carry out an enquiry whenever it deems it appropriate that an enquiry be made into the conduct of any person to whom this Article applies and in respect of whom allegations exist of abuse or misuse of the authority of his office.
(3) Upon the conclusion of an enquiry, the Commission shall, pursuant to the procedure prescribed by a law enacted by Parliament in that behalf, submit to the President or to the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar as the case may be a report on the proceedings of the enquiry, the views of the Commission on the whole matter, and its recommendations.
(4) The provisions of this Article shall apply to persons employed in the service of the Government of the United Republic and those in the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, employees and leaders of political parties who deal with public affairs, members and employees of all Commissions in the Government of the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, persons holding office in the departments of those Governments, public corporations, and such other public authorities as may be specified in
a law enacted by Parliament, but these provisions shall not apply to the President or to the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.
(5) The Commission shall not have any power either under the provisions of this Article or those of any law enacted by Parliament for the purpose of this Chapter of this Constitution to enquire into the decision of any Judge, magistrate or court registrar where such decision was made in the discharge of the functions of his office; likewise the Commission shall not have power to enquire into any decision made by any quasi-judicial body established in accordance
with law where such decision was made in the discharge of its authority.
 
Article 130 []
(1) The Commission shall consist of a Chairman and not more than four other members who shall be appointed by the President.
(2) Any person on being appointed member of the Commission shall be obliged to vacate forthwith the office of Minister, Deputy Minister, or office in any political party, or the
office of any other kind specified in that behalf by a law enacted by Parliament.
(3) A person who ceases to be a member of the Commission may be re-appointed, but notwithstanding the provisions of Article 74(3) of this Constitution a person who has
held office of member of the Commission for a continuous period of six years may not be re-appointed member until after the expiry of three years since he ceased to hold such office.
(4) Subject to the provisions of this Article, a member of the Commission shall cease to be such member and shall vacate office upon the occurrence of any of the following events:
(a) the completion of three years since his appointment; or
(b) the assumption of any office the holding of which, would if he were not a member of the
Commission, disqualify him from being appointed member of the Commission.
(5) The President may remove a member of the Commission from office only for failing to discharge the functions of his office (either due to illness or any other reason) or due to misconduct.
(6) The Commission may carry out its functions notwithstanding any vacancy in its membership or the absence of some member.
 
Article 131 []
Parliament shall enact a law in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution for the purpose of making provisions concerning the authority of the Commission, the procedure for conducting its business, and legal immunities of its members which shall enable them to discharge their duties without legal disabilities.
 

Part II  Public Leaders' ethics Secretariat

 
Article 132 []
(l) There is hereby established a Public Leaders' Ethics Secretariat which shall have power to inquire into the behavior and conduct of any public leader of ensuring that the provisions of the law concerning the ethics of public leaders are duly complied with.
(2) For the purposes of this Article, the meaning of leaderand of ethics for public leadersshall be construed in accordance with the provisions of the law concerning the ethics of public leaders or the provisions of any other law enacted by Parliament in so far as such provisions relate to the question of leadership and its interpretation.
(3) The Public Leaders' Ethics Secretariat shall consist of the Ethics Commissioner and such other employees whose number shall be as specified by a law enacted by Parliament.
(4) Parliament shall enact a law stipulating basic rules of ethics for public leaders which shall be complied with by all persons holding public office which shall be specified by Parliament.
(5) Basic rules of ethics for public leaders shall-
(a) spell out public offices the holders of which shall be subject thereto;
(b) require persons holding certain public offices to make a formal declaration from time to time concerning their income assets and liabilities;
(c) prohibit conduct and behavior which tend to portray that a leader is dishonest, practices favoritism or lacks integrity or which tends to promote or encourage corrupt practices in public affairs or jeopardizes public interest or welfare:
(d) prescribe penalties which may be imposed for breaches of the code of ethics;
(e) provide for procedure, powers and practice to be applied in order to ensure compliance with the code of ethics;
(f) prescribe any other provisions as are appropriate or necessary for the purpose of promoting and maintaining honesty, transparency, impartiality and integrity in the conduct of public affairs and for the protection of public funds and any other public property.
(6) Parliament may, by law, provide for the dismissal or removal of a person from office for breaches of the code of ethics regardless of whether the office is elective or appointive.
 

Chapter VII  Provisions regarding the Finances of the United Republic

 

Part I  Contribution and Allocation of the Revenue of the United Republic

 
Article 133 []
The Government of the United Republic shall maintain a special account to be known as Joint Finance Accountand which shall form part of the Consolidated Fund of the United
Republic into which shall be paid all the moneys contributed by the two Governments in such proportions as shall be determined by the Joint Finance Commission in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament for the purposes of the business of the United Republic in relation to Union Matters.
 
Article 134 []
(1) There is hereby established a Joint Finance Commission consisting of not more than seven members who shall be appointed by the President in accordance with this Article and the provisions of a law enacted by Parliament.
(2) The functions of the Commission shall be-
(a) to analyze the revenue and expenditure arising from, or relating to the management of affairs concerning Union Matters, and to make recommendations to the two Governments
concerning the contribution by, and the allocation to, each of the Governments;
(b) to keep under constant scrutiny the fiscal system of the United Republic and also the relations between the two Governments in relation to financial matters;
(c) to discharge other functions which the President shall assign to the Commission or as the President may direct, and in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
 

Part II  The Consolidated Fund and the Finances of the United Republic

 
Article 135 []
(1) All revenue derived from various sources for the use of the Government of the United Republic, except for the type of revenue specified in sub-article (2) of this Article, shall be paid into one special fund to be known as the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic.
(2) The revenue which shall not be paid into the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic is that which has been specified by law to be used for a specified purpose or to be paid into another fund for special use.
 
Article 136 []
(1) Moneys shall not be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic for expenditure save in accordance with the following terms:
(a) such money should be for the purpose of expenditure which has been authorised to be
charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic by this
Constitution or by any other law; or
(b) such money is for expenditure which has been authorized either by Appropriation Act enacted by Parliament for that purpose or a law enacted by Parliament in accordance with the
provisions of Article 140 of this Constitution.
(2) Moneys in any special fund of the Government other than the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic shall not be paid out for expenditure unless and until such expenditure has been authorized by law.
(3) Moneys in the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic shall not be paid out of that Fund for the purpose of expenditure unless and until such expenditure has been approved by the Controller and Auditor-General, and also on condition that such money shall have been paid out in accordance with a procedure prescribed for that purpose pursuant to a law enacted by Parliament.
 
Article 137 []
(1) The President shall give directions to persons concerned to prepare and submit to the National Assembly in each Government financial year estimates of the revenue and expenditure of the Government of the United Republic for the next financial year.
(2) After the National Assembly has approved the estimates of expenditure (apart from the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund by this Constitution by any other law) a Bill to be known as an Appropriation Bill shall be introduced into the National Assembly forth purpose of authorising the issue from the Consolidated Fund of the sums necessary to meet the expenditure for the various activities of the Government involved in those estimates.
(3) Where in any financial year it is found that:-
(a) the amount of money appropriated by the Appropriation Act for a certain purpose is
insufficient or it has been necessary to incur expenditure in respect of an activity for which no
amount has been appropriated under the Act; or
(c) money has been expended for a certain purpose in excess of the amount appropriated for it by the Appropriation Act or that money has been expended to a purpose for which no amount was appropriated under the Act, there shall be presented before the National Assembly a supplementary estimate or, as the case may be, a statement of excess, and after the National Assembly has approved the supplementary estimate or the statement of excess there shall be introduced into the National .Assembly a supplementary Appropriation Bill for the purpose of authorising the issue of funds from the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic, and such moneys shall be used to meet the cost of the activities involved in the
supplementary estimates or statement of excess.
 
Article 138 []
(1) No tax of any kind shall be imposed save in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament or pursuant to a procedure lawfully prescribed and having the force of law by virtue of a law enacted by Parliament.
(2) The provisions contained in sub-article (1) of this Article shall not preclude the House of Representatives of Zanzibar from exercising its power to impose tax of any kind in accordance with the authority of that House.
 
Article 139 []
(1) Parliament may enact a law providing for the authorization of expenditure of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of  the Government of the United Republic in accordance with a procedure prescribed in sub-article (2) of this Article.
(2) Where the financial year of the Government has begun and the Appropriation Act in relation to that year has not come into operation, then the President may authorise the issue of
moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic for the purposes of meeting the expenses of essential business of the Government, and such moneys shall be expended until the expiration of four months from the beginning of the financial year, or until the Appropriation Act comes into operation, whichever occurs earlier.
 
Article 140 []
(1) Parliament may enact a law providing for the following:
(a)  the establishment of a Contingencies Fund and authorizing the President or a Minister
appointed by the President in that behalf to borrow money from that Fund to meet the costs of an urgent and unforeseen need for which no funds had been provided; and
(b) authorizing the President or a Minister appointed by the President in that behalf to apply money specifically appropriated for certain business to meet the costs of an urgent and unforeseen need as referred to in paragraph (a) of this sub-article.
(2) Where money has been borrowed from the Contingencies Fund, or money specifically appropriated for a certain purpose is applied to meet the costs of an urgent and unforeseen
need, then there shall be presented before the National Assembly supplementary estimates, and after the National Assembly has approved the supplementary estimates, a supplementary
Appropriation Bill which shall be introduced into the National Assembly for the purpose of authorising such additional expenditure shall ensure that any moneys borrowed from the
Contingencies Fund shall be reimbursed from the moneys the expenditure of which shall be authorised by that Bill.
 
Article 141 []
(l) The public debt of the United Republic shall be secured on the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic.
(2) For the purposes of interpretation of this Article, public debtmeans the debt itself and also the interest charged on it, sinking fund payments in respect of that debt and the costs,
charges and expenses incidental to the management of that debt.
 
Article 142 []
(1) Holders of public office to whom the provisions of this Article apply shall be paid salaries and allowances as shall be prescribed by a law enacted by a Parliament.
(2) The moneys for the salaries and allowances payable to the holders of offices to whom the provisions of this Article apply together with pension and gratuity for those entitled to such
payments shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic.
(3) The salary payable to the holder of a public office to whom the provisions of this Article apply together with his terms and conditions of service shall not be varied in a manner which is less beneficial to him, but these provisions shall not apply to allowances payable to the holder of such office.
(4) Where the holder of a public office to whom the provisions of this Article apply has the option to choose the salary or the terms and conditions of service, then for the purpose of
construing the provisions of sub-article (3) of this Article, the salary, the terms and conditions of service which he chooses shall be deemed to be more beneficial to him than any other salary or terms and conditions of service which he could have opted for.
(5) The provisions of this Article shall apply to a Justice of the Court of Appeal, a Judge of the High Court of the United Republic, the Chairman and member of the Permanent Commission of Enquiry and the Controller and Auditor General of the Government of the United Republic.
 
Article 143 []
(l) There shall be a Controller and Auditor- General of the United Republic.
(2) The Controller and Auditor-General shall have the responsibility over the following matters:
(a) to ensure that the use of any moneys proposed to be paid out of the Consolidated Fund has been authorized and that the funds shall be paid out in accordance with the provisions of Article 136 of this Constitution, and where he is satisfied that those provision shall be duly complied with, then he shall authorize payment of such moneys.
(b) to ensure that all the moneys the payment of which has been authorized to be charged on the Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic, or the moneys the use of which has been authorized by a law enacted by Parliament and which have been spent, have been applied to the purposes connected with the use of such moneys and that such expenditure has been incurred in accordance with the authorization for such expenditure; and
(c) at least once every year to audit and give an audit report in respect of the accounts of the
Government of the United Republic, the accounts managed by all officers of the Government of the United Republic and the accounts of all courts of the United Republic and the accounts managed by the Clerk of the National Assembly.
(3) The Controller and Auditor-General and every employee of the Government who is authorised by him shall have the right to examine books records, statements of account, reports and all other documents concerning any type of account referred to in sub-
article (2) of this Article.
(4) The Controller and Auditor-General shall submit to the President every report he makes pursuant to the provisions of sub-article (2) of this Article. Upon receipt of such report the President shall direct the persons concerned to submit that report before the first sitting of the National Assembly which shall be held after the President has received the report and it shall have to be submitted to such sitting before the expiration of seven days from the day the
sitting of the National Assembly began. If the President does not take steps of submitting such report to the National Assembly, then the Controller and Auditor-General shall submit the report to the Speaker of the National Assembly (or the Deputy Speaker if the office of the Speaker is vacant then, or if for any reason the Speaker is unable to perform the functions of his office) who shall submit the report to the National Assembly.
(5)  The Controller and Auditor-General shall also have responsibility of discharging other duties and functions, and shall have other various powers as shall be specified by the law concerning the accounts of the Government of the United Republic or the accounts of other public authorities or other bodies.
(6)  In the discharge of his functions in accordance with the provisions of sub-articles (2), (3) and (4) of this Article, the Controller and Auditor-General shall not be obliged to comply with the order or direction of any other person or Government Department, but the provisions of
this sub-article shall not preclude a court from exercising jurisdiction to enquire into whether the Controller and Auditor-General has discharged his functions in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution or not.
 
Article 144 []
(1) Without prejudice to the other provisions of this Article, the Controller and Auditor-General of the United Republic shall be obliged to vacate office upon attaining the age
of sixty or any other age which shall be prescribed by a law enacted by Parliament.
(2) The Controller and Auditor-General may be removed from office only for inability to perform the functions of his office (either due to illness or to any other reason) or for misbehavior; or for violating the provisions of the law concerning the ethics of public leaders and shall not be so removed except in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (4) of this article.
(3) If the President considers that the question of the removal of the Controller and Auditor-General from office under the provisions of this Article needs to be investigated, then the
procedure shall be as follows:
(a) the President shall appoint a Special Tribunal which shall consist of a Chairman and not less than two other members. The Chairman and at least half of the other members of that Special Tribunal shall be persons who are or have been Judges of the High Court or of the Court of Appeal in any country within the Commonwealth;
(b) the Special Tribunal shall investigate and submit a report to the President on this
whole matter and shall advise him whether or not the Controller and Auditor General should
be removed from office in accordance with the provisions of this Article on the grounds of
inability to perform his functions due to illness or any other reason or on grounds of
misbehavior.
(4) If the Special Tribunal appointed in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (3) advises the President that the Controller and Auditor-General be removed from office on
grounds of inability to perform functions of his office due to illness or any other reason or on grounds of misbehavior then the President shall remove him from office.
(5) If the question of removing the Controller and Auditor-General has been referred to a Special Tribunal for investigation pursuant to the provisions of this Article, the President may
suspend the Controller and Auditor-General from office, and the President may at any time rescind the decision to suspend the Controller and Auditor-General and in any case such decision shall lapse if the Special Tribunal advises the President that the Controller and Auditor-General be not removed from office.
(6) A person who holds or who has held the office of Controller and Auditor-General shall not be appointed to, or act in, any other office in the service of the Government of the United
Republic.
(7) The provisions of this Article shall not apply to any person appointed acting Controller and Auditor-General.
 

Chapter VIII  Local Government Authorities

 
Article 145 []
(1) There shall be established local government authorities in each region, district, urban area and village in die United Republic, which shall be of the type and designation prescribed by law to be enacted by Parliament or by the House of Representatives.
(2) Parliament or the House of Representatives as the case may be, shall enact a law providing for the establishment of local government authorities, their structure and composition, sources of revenue and procedure for the conduct of their business.
 
Article 146 []
(1) The purpose of having local government authorities is to transfer authority to the people. Local government authorities shall have the right and power to participate, and to involve the people, in the planning and implementation of development programmes within their respective areas and generally throughout the country.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-article (I), of this Article, a local government authority in conformity with the provisions of the law establishing it, shall have the following functions:
(a) to perform the functions of local government within its area;
(b) to ensure the enforcement of law and public safety of the people; and
(c) to consolidate democracy within its area and to apply it to accelerate the development of the people.
 

Chapter IX  The Armed Forces

 
Article 147 []
(l) It is hereby prohibited for any person or any organization  or any group of persons except the Government to force raise or maintain in Tanzania an armed force of any kind.
(2) The Government of the United Republic may, in accordance with law, raise and maintain in Tanzania armed forces of various types for the purpose of the defence and security of the territory and the people of  Tanzania.
(3) It is hereby prohibited for any member of the defence and security forces to join any political  party save only that he shall have the right to vote which right is specified under
Article 5 of this Constitution.
(4) For the purposes of this Article, the expression r in the service of the Defence Forces, the Police Force, the Prisons Service or the National Service, whether on temporary or permanent terms.
 
Article 148 []
(l) Without prejudice to the provisions of any law enacted by Parliament, among the powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is to command the Armed Forces to engage in military operations connected with the defence of the United Republic, rescue operations to save life and property in times of emergency and other matters which the Commander- in-Chief shall deem necessary and to that end the Commander-in-Chief may command the Armed Forces to engage in those operations in or outside Tanzania.
(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of a law enacted by Parliament, power over the following matters shall vest in the Commander-in-Chief, that is to say:
(a) the appointment of top commanding officers in the Armed Forces of the United Republic
(b) the recruitment of persons into and their removal from the Armed Forces;
(c) the appointment of commanders of various units of the Armed Forces; and
(d) the suspension of any power vested in any member of the Armed Forces and pertaining to
his being a member of such Force.
(3) Any thing done by any member of the Armed Forces in contravention of an order issued by the Commander-in-Chief pursuant to the provisions of sub-articles (1) and (2) of
this Article shall be void.
 

Chapter X  Miscellaneous Provisions

 
Article 149 []
(l) Any person holding any office established by this Constitution (including the office of Minister, Deputy Minister, or Member of Parliament, except an ex- officio Member of Parliament) may resign by giving notice in writing and signed by him, in accordance with the following procedure:
(a) if such person was appointed or nominated by one person, then such notice of resignation shall be submitted to the person who appointed or nominated him, or where he was appointed, or nominated by a body of persons, then such notice of resignation shall be submitted to that body of persons;
(b) if that person is the holder of the office of President, then the notice of resignation shall be submitted to the Speaker;
(c) if that person is the Speaker or Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly, the notice of resignation shall be submitted to the National Assembly; and
(d) if that person is a Member of Parliament, then that notice of resignation shall be submitted to the Speaker.
(2) A person who has given notice of resignation pursuant to the provisions of sub-article (1) of this Article shall be deemed to have resigned from the day the notice of resignation is received by the person or body of persons concerned, or when it is received by any person
authorized by a person or body of persons concerned to receive the notice of resignation, but where the notice of resignation states that that person will resign some later day after the receipt of that notice by the person or body of persons concerned, then that person shall be deemed to have resigned from such later day.
(3) Where any person holding any office established by this Constitution (including the office of the Minister, Deputy Minister or Member of Parliament, except an ex officio Member of Parliament) resigns, then, if he has all the necessary qualifications and is in every respect eligible, he may be re-appointed or renominated to hold such office in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(4) Nothing in the provisions of sub-article (3) shall preclude a person holding the office of President from being re-elected to that office while he holds the office of President.
 
Article 150 []
(l) For the purpose of interpreting the provisions of this Constitution in relation to the procedure of appointment to the service of the Government the United Republic, it is hereby
declared that any person having power pursuant to this Constitution to appoint or nominate another person to hold a certain office has also the power to appoint or nominate a person to act in, or to temporarily perform functions of, that office:
Provided that these provisions shall not apply to the offices of Minister Deputy Minister, Justice of the Court of Appeal, Judge of the High Court, Member of the Permanent Commission of Enquiry or Member of Electoral Commission.
(2) The following rules shall also apply for the purposes of interpreting the provisions of this Constitution concerning, the procedure of appointment to offices in the services of the Government of the United Republic:
(a) where a person holding an certain office pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution
is on leave pending vacation of office, then another person may be appointed to that
office notwithstanding that the other person is still in service;
(b) where two or more persons concurrently hold a certain office pursuant to their appointment in accordance with the rules laid down in paragraph (a) of this sub-article, then in those circumstances if the need arises to perform any duty connected with that office the
person last appointed shall be deemed to be the only person holding such office;
(c) where pursuant to provisions of this Constitution a person is appointed to act in or to
perform the functions of a certain office when the substantive holder of that office fails to
perform the duties connected with that office, then it shall not be permitted to inquire into or to make any representations against such appointment on the ground that the substantive
holder did not fail to perform the duties connected with that office.
 
Article 151 []
(1) In this Constitution unless the context requires otherwise law means a law or command issued pursuant to a law regulating discipline in a Force;
of armed forcewhen used in connection with any armed force, includes any member of the armed force who in accordance with the military law of the Force, is subject to the discipline of that Force;
House of Representatives means the House of Representatives of Zanzibar referred to in Article 106 of this Constitution and which performs its functions in accordance with this Constitution and the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984;
liament of the United Republic referred to in Article 62 of this Constitution;
l party which has been granted full registration in accordance with the political Parties Act, 1992;
icle 116 of this Constitution; s the Zanzibar Judiciary which includes all the courts within the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar;
Justice of the Court of Appeal referred to in sub-article (1) of Article 115 of this Constitution who is appointed in accordance with the provisions sub-article (2) of Article 118 of this Constitution or the Chief Justice is absent or is unable to discharge the functions of his office for any reason, the Acting Chief Justice appointed in accordance with the provisions of sub-article (4) of Article 118 of this Constitution; and if the Acting Chief Justice is also absent or is unable to perform the functions of Chief Justice, the most senior Justice of the Court of Appeal then present;
the Chief Justice of the High Court of Zanzibar who, pursuant to the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, is the head of the Zanzibar Judiciary;
forces and includes any other force established by this Constitution or in accordance with law and which is governed by military law; the organization whose members include the United Republic and every country to which the provisions of section 7 of the Citizenship Act, 1961, apply;
shall have the meaning ordinarily ascribed to it and includes any formal declaration permitted by law to be used instead of an oath;
to the State and to the Government of the United Republic;
eans ethical rules guiding the conduct of persons holding the office of judge or magistrate;
in the service of the Government of the United Republic shall have the ordinary meaning of that expression and includes service in the Armed Forces of the United Republic and in the Police Force or other force established in accordance with law;
means any court having jurisdiction in the United Republic except a court established by military law; save that for the purposes of Articles 13, 14 and 15 of this Constitution it shall include a court established under military law;
Courtmeans the High Court of the United Republic or the High Court of Zanzibar;
Mattersmeans all public affairs specified in Article 4 of this Constitution as being Union Matters;
authorityincludes the Executive and the Legislature of the United Republic, as well as the Executive and the House of Representatives of Zanzibar;
means the Attorney-General for the United Republic referred to in Article 59;
Governmentincludes the Government of the United Republic, the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar or a District Council or Urban Authority, and also any person exercising any power or authority on behalf of the Government or local government authority; Government Authorities means the local government authorities established under Article 145 of this Constitution for the purposes of exercising the people's power;
Tanzaniameans the whole of the territory of the United Republic which formerly was the territory of the Republic of Tanganyika;
Zanzibarmeans the whole of the territory of the United Republic which formerly was the territory of the People's Republic of Zanzibar and which was previously referred to as Visiwani;
Electionsor elections means an election of a President and of the Members of Parliament representing electoral constituencies, which is held subsequent to
the dissolution of Parliament;
iament appointed to the office of Minister except Deputy Minister, and that definition shall also apply to the Vice-President;
has the same meaning as Tanzania Zanzibar.
(2) The following rules shall be applied for the purpose of construing the provisions of the Constitution, that is to say-
(a) whenever a reference is made to the function of the office of President it shall be construed to include powers to perform various duties and functions as the head of the Government of the United Republic, and also such other functions or duties if so provided in this Constitution or in any other law;
(b) whenever reference is made to an office in the service of the Government it shall be construed that the office concerned is within the service of the Government of the United Republic unless it is stated otherwise, and whenever reference is made to a Government department it shall be construed that the department concerned is a department of the Government of the United Republic unless it is stated otherwise,
(c) if pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution there is any matter required to be performed or to be dealt with by any political party, then that matter shall be performed or dealt with that party in accordance with the procedure laid down by that party for that purpose, and also in conformity with the provisions of this Constitution or any law enacted by Parliament for that purpose;
(d) for the purposes of this Constitution, a person shall not be deemed to hold office in the service of the Government of the United Republic by reason only that he is receiving pension or other payment of that kind in respect to this past service in the Government of the United Republic or in any, former Government of Mainland Tanzania or in the Armed Forces or the Police Force of the Government of the United Republic or former Government of Mainland Tanzania or of Zanzibar;
(e) in this Constitution, unless the context requires otherwise, whenever reference is made to the holder of a certain office by reference to the designation his office such reference shall be
construed to include any person who is acting in, or who has been duly appointed to perform the functions of, that office;
(f)  in this Constitution wherever there is a reference to the power to remove the holder of
an office in the service of the Government of the United Republic, it shall be construed that the power concerned includes the power conferred in accordance with the provisions of any law which requires or permits that person to retire:
Provided that the provisions of this rule shall not be construed as conferring power on any
person to require a Justice of the Court of Appeal, a Judge of the High Court or the Controller and Auditor-General to retire from office;
(g) in this Constitution, wherever there is reference to a law which replaces or repeals another law, it shall be construed that the law concerned includes a law, which amends that other law or which extends the application of that other law whether with or without modification or
amendment, or a law which introduces new provisions in another law.
 
Article 152 []
(l) This Constitution may be cited as the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977.
(2) This Constitution shall come into operation on the 26th of April, 1977
(3) This Constitution shall apply to Mainland Tanzania as well as Tanzania Zanzibar.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - April 2nd, 2011 / Thanks to M. Aebli. / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.