Norway > Constitution

    { Adopted on: 16 May 1814 }
    { In force since: 17 May 1814 }
    { Adopted by: Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll }
    { Official Title: The Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway }
    { ICL Document Status: 18 June 2012 }

    { Editor's Note:
    The ICL edition is based on the translated version of the Constitution of Norway published by the Parliament [Storting]. The edition incorporates all amendments up to and including the one of 21 May 2012 (partial secularization of the State). Changes in the ICL edition include section tags and paragraph numbers. To facilitate easier comparative searches, the term 'Storting' has been replaced by 'Parliament'. Formulations with "shall" have been changed to ICL translation style. Article titles and cross-references have been added.  ICL-Keys are yet to be included. }


[Section]  A. Form of government No_Preamble

§ 1  [Integrity of the Kingdom]
The Kingdom of Norway is a free, independent, indivisible and inalienable Realm. Its form of government is a limited and hereditary monarchy.
§ 2  [State Values]
The basis of our values remains our Christian and humanist inheritance. This Constitution is to ensure democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

[Section] B. The Executive Power, the King and the Royal Family and Religion

§ 3  [Executive Power]
The Executive Power is vested in the King, or in the Queen if she has succeeded to the Crown pursuant to the provisions of Article 6 or Article 7 or Article 48 of this Constitution. When the Executive Power is thus vested in the Queen, she has all the rights and obligations which pursuant to this Constitution and the Law of the Land are possessed by the King.
§ 4  [Religion of the King]
The King at all times professes the Evangelical-Lutheran religion.
§ 5  [Immunity of the King]
The King's person is sacred; he cannot be censured or accused. The responsibility rests with his Council.
§ 6  [Succession]
(1) The order of succession is lineal, so that only a child born in lawful wedlock of the Queen or King, or of one who is herself or himself entitled to the succession may succeed, and so that the nearest line takes precedence over the more remote and the elder in the line over the younger.
(2) An unborn child is also included among those entitled to the succession and immediately takes her or his proper place in the line of succession as soon as she or he is born into the world.
(3) The right of succession must not, however, belong to any person who is not born in the direct line of descent from the last reigning Queen or King or a sister or brother thereof, or is not herself or himself a sister or brother thereof.
(4) When a Princess or Prince entitled to succeed to the Crown of Norway is born, her or his name and time of birth is notified to the first Parliament [Storting] in session and be entered in the record of its proceedings.
(5) For those born before the year 1971, Article 6 of the Constitution as it was passed on 18 November 1905, however, applies. For those born before the year 1990 it is nevertheless the case that a male takes precedence over a female.
§ 7 [Successor]
If there is no Princess or Prince entitled to the succession, the King may propose his successor to the Parliament [Storting], which has the right to make the choice if the King's proposal is not accepted.
§ 8 [Majority Age of the King]
(1) The age of majority of the King is laid down by law.
(2) As soon as the King has attained the age prescribed by law, he makes a public declaration that he is of age.
§ 9 [Oath of the King]
(1) As soon as the King, being of age, accedes to the government, he takes the following oath before the Parliament [Storting]:
"I promise and swear that I will govern the Kingdom of Norway in accordance with its Constitution and Laws; so help me God, the Almighty and Omniscient."
(2) If the Parliament [Storting] is not in session at the time, the oath is made in writing in the Council of State and is repeated solemnly by the King at the first subsequent Parliament [Storting].
§ 10 [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 11 [Residence of the King]
(1) The King resides in the Realm and may not, without the consent of the Parliament [Storting], remain outside the Realm for more than six months at a time, otherwise he has forfeited, for his person, the right to the Crown.
(2) The King may not accept any other crown or government without the consent of the Parliament [Storting], for which two thirds of the votes are required.
§ 12 [Council of State]
(1) The King himself chooses a Council from among Norwegian citizens who are entitled to vote. This Council consists of a Prime Minister and at least seven other Members.
(2) The King apportions the business among the Members of the Council of State as he deems appropriate. Under extraordinary circumstances, besides the ordinary Members of the Council of State, the King may summon other Norwegian citizens, although no Members of the Parliament [Storting], to take a seat in the Council of State.
(3) Husband and wife, parent and child or two siblings may never sit at the same time in the Council of State.
§ 13 [Administration by the Council of State]
(1) During his travels within the Realm, the King may delegate the administration of the Realm to the Council of State. The Council of State conducts the government in the King's name and on his behalf. It scrupulously observes the provisions of this Constitution, as well as such particular directives in conformity therewith as the King may instruct.
(2) The matters of business are decided by voting, where in the event of the votes being equal, the Prime Minister, or in his absence the highest-ranking Member of the Council of Statewho is present, has two votes.
(3) The Council of State makes a report to the King on matters of business which it thus decides.
§ 14 [State Secretaries]
The King may appoint State Secretaries to assist Members of the Council of State with their duties outside the Council of State. Each State Secretary acts on behalf of the Member of the Council of State to whom he is attached to the extent determined by that Member.
§ 15 [Vote of no Confidence]
(1) Any person who holds a seat in the Council of State has the duty to submit his application to resign once the Parliament [Storting] has passed a vote of no confidence against that Member of the Council of State or against the Council of State as a whole.
(2) The King is bound to grant such an application to resign.
(3) Once the Parliament [Storting] has passed a vote of no confidence, only such business may be conducted as is required for the proper discharge of duties.
§ 16 [Religion]
All inhabitants of the realm have the right to free exercise of their religion. The Norwegian Church, an Evangelical-Lutheran Church, remains Norway's Church and supported as such by the state. Specific provisions on the organisation thereof  are laid down by law. All religions and religious groups are supported equally.
§ 17 [Ordinances of the King]
The King may issue and repeal ordinances relating to commerce, customs, all livelihoods and the police; although these must not conflict with the Constitution or with the laws passed by the Parliament [Storting] (as hereinafter prescribed in Articles 76, 77, 78 and 79).
§ 18 [Collection of Taxes and Duties]
As a general rule the King provides for the collection of the taxes and duties imposed by the Parliament [Storting].
§ 19 [Administration of State Property]
The King ensures that the properties and prerogatives of the State are utilized and administered in the manner determined by the Parliament [Storting] and in the best interests of the general public.
§ 20 [Right to Pardon]
(1) The King has the right in the Council of State to pardon criminals after sentence has been passed. The criminal has the choice of accepting the King's pardon or submitting to the penalty imposed.
(2) In proceedings which the Parliament [Storting] causes to be brought before the Court of Impeachment, no pardon other than deliverance from the death penalty may be granted, unless the Parliament [Storting] has given its consent thereto.
§ 21 [Appointment of Officials]
The King chooses and appoints, after consultation with his Council of State, all senior civil and military officials. Before the appointment is made, such officials swear or, if by law exempted from taking the oath, solemnly declare obedience and allegiance to the Constitution and the King, although senior officials who are not Norwegian nationals may by law be exempted from this duty. The Royal Princes must not hold senior civil offices.
§ 22 [Dismissing Members of the Council of State]
(1) The Prime Minister and the other Members of the Council of State, together with the State Secretaries, may be dismissed by the King without any prior court judgment, after he has heard the opinion of the Council of State on the subject. The same applies to senior officials employed in government offices or in the diplomatic or consular service, to the highest-ranking civil officials, commanders of regiments and other military formations, commandants of forts and officers commanding warships. Whether pensions should be granted to senior officials thus dismissed is determined by the next Parliament [Storting]. In the interval they receive two thirds of their previous pay.
(2) Other senior officials may only be suspended by the King, and must then without delay be charged before the Courts, but they may not, except by court judgment, be dismissed nor, against their will, transferred.
(3) All senior officials may, without a prior court judgment, be discharged from office upon attaining the statutory age limit.
§ 23 [Rewards]
(1) The King may bestow orders upon whomever he pleases, as a reward for distinguished services, and such orders must be publicly announced, but no rank or title other than that attached to any office. The order exempts no one from the common duties and burdens of citizens, nor does it carry with it any preferential admission to senior official posts in the State. Senior officials honourably discharged from office retain the title and rank of their office. This does not apply, however, to Members of the Council of State or the State Secretaries.
(2) No personal, or mixed, hereditary privileges may henceforth be granted to anyone.
§ 24 [Royal Household]
The King chooses and dismisses, at his own discretion, his Royal Household and Court Officials.
§ 25 [Commander-in-Chief]
(1) The King is Commander-in-Chief of the land and naval forces of the Realm. These forces may not be increased or reduced without the consent of the Parliament [Storting]. They may not be transferred to the service of foreign powers, nor may the military forces of any foreign power, except auxiliary forces assisting against hostile attack, be brought into the Realm without the consent of the Parliament [Storting].
(2) The territorial army and the other troops which cannot be classed as troops of the line must never, without the consent of the Parliament [Storting], be employed outside the borders of the Realm.
§ 26 [Declarations and Treaties]
(1) The King has the right to call up troops, to engage in war in defence of the Realm and to make peace, to conclude and denounce treaties, to send and to receive diplomatic envoys.
(2) Treaties on matters of special importance, and, in all cases, treaties whose implementation, according to the Constitution, necessitates a new law or a decision by the Parliament [Storting], are not binding until the Parliament [Storting] has given its consent thereto.
§ 27 [Quorum and Attendance of the Council of State]
All Members of the Council of State, unless lawfully absent, attend the Council of State and no decision may be adopted there unless more than half the number of members are present.
§ 28 [Proposals for Official Posts]
Proposals regarding appointments to senior official posts and other matters of importance are presented in the Council of State by the Member under whose department they come, and such matters are dealt with by him in accordance with the decision adopted in the Council of State. However, matters strictly relating to military command may, to the extent determined by the King, be excepted from proceedings in the Council of State.
§ 29 [Delegation of Ministerial Duties]
(1) If a Member of the Council of State is lawfully prevented from attending the meeting and from presenting the matters coming under his department, these may be presented by another member temporarily appointed by the King for the purpose.
(2) If so many Members are lawfully prevented from attending that not more than half of the stipulated number are present, the requisite number of other men or women is temporarily appointed to take a seat in the Council of State.
§ 30 [Minutes, "Duty" to Speak Up and Remonstrate]
(1) All the proceedings of the Council of State are entered in its records. Diplomatic matters which the Council of State decides to keep secret are entered in a special record. The same applies to military command matters which the Council of State decides to keep secret.
(2) Everyone who has a seat in the Council of State has the duty frankly to express his opinion, to which the King is bound to listen. But it rests with the King to make a decision according to his own judgment.
(3) If any Member of the Council of State is of the opinion that the King's decision conflicts with the form of government or the laws of the Realm, it is his duty to make strong remonstrances against it, as well as to enter his opinion in the records. A member who has not thus protested is deemed to have been in agreement with the King, and is answerable in such manner as may be subsequently decided, and may be impeached by the Parliament [Storting] before the Court of Impeachment.
§ 31 [Countersignature]
All decisions drawn up by the King must, in order to become valid, be countersigned. The decisions relating to military command are countersigned by the person who has presented the matter, while other decisions are countersigned by the Prime Minister or, if he has not been present, by the highest-ranking Member of the Council of State present.
§ 32 [Absentee Signature]
The decisions adopted by the Government during the King's absence are drawn up in the King's name and be signed by the Council of State.
§ 33 [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 34 [Titles]
The King makes provisions concerning titles for those who are entitled to succeed to the Crown.
§ 35 [Advisory Seat of the Successor]
As soon as the heir to the Throne has completed her or his eighteenth year, she or he is entitled to take a seat in the Council of State, although without a vote or responsibility.
§ 36  [Consent to Marriage of the Successor]
(1) A Princess or Prince entitled to succeed to the Crown of Norway may not marry without the consent of the King. Nor may she or he accept any other crown or government without the consent of the King and the Parliament [Storting]; for the consent of the Parliament [Storting] two thirds of the votes are required.
(2) If she or he acts contrary to this rule, they and their descendants forfeit their right to the Throne of Norway.
§ 37  [Immunity of the Successor]
The Royal Princes and Princesses may not personally be answerable to anyone other than the King, or whomever he decrees to sit in judgment on them.
§ 38  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 39  [Death of the King]
If the King dies and the heir to the Throne is still under age, the Council of State immediately summons the Parliament [Storting].
§ 40  [Administration Without King]
Until the Parliament [Storting] has assembled and made provisions for the government during the minority of the King, the Council of State is responsible for the administration of the Realm in accordance with the Constitution.
§ 41  [Temporary Execution of the Royal Powers]
If the King is absent from the Realm unless commanding in the field, or if he is so ill that he cannot attend to the government, the person next entitled to succeed to the Throne, provided that he has attained the age stipulated for the King's majority, conducts the government as the temporary executor of the Royal Powers. If this is not the case, the Council of State will conduct the administration of the Realm.
§ 42  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 43  [Trustees of the King During Minority]
The choice of trustees to conduct the government on behalf of the King during his minority is undertaken by the Parliament [Storting].
§ 44  [Oath of Temporary Executor]
(1) The Princess or Prince who, in the cases mentioned in Article 41, conducts the government makes the following oath in writing before the Parliament [Storting]:
"I promise and swear that I will conduct the government in accordance with the Constitution and the Laws, so help me God, the Almighty and Omniscient."
(2) If the Parliament [Storting] is not in session at the time, the oath is made in the Council of State and later be presented to the next Parliament [Storting].
(3) The Princess or Prince who has once made the oath may not repeat it later.
§ 45  [Account of Temporary Government]
As soon as their conduct of the government ceases, the trustees submit to the King and the Parliament [Storting] an account of the same.
§ 46  [Emergency Summons by Supreme Court]
If the persons concerned fail to summon the Parliament [Storting] immediately in accordance with Article 39, it becomes the unconditional duty of the Supreme Court, as soon as four weeks have elapsed, to arrange for the Parliament [Storting] to be summoned.
§ 47  [Education of the King During Minority]
The supervision of the education of the King during his minority should, if both his parents are dead and neither of them has left any written directions thereon, be determined by the Parliament [Storting].
§ 48  [Choice of New Dynasty]
If the Royal Line has died out, and no successor to the Throne has been designated, then a new Queen or King is chosen by the Parliament [Storting]. Meanwhile, the Executive Power is exercised in accordance with Article 40.

[Section] C. Rights of citizens and the Legislative Power

§ 49  [Legislative Power]
The people exercise the Legislative Power through the Parliament [Storting].
§ 50  [Electoral Rights]
(1) Those entitled to vote in elections to the Parliament [Storting] are Norwegian citizens, men and women, who, at the latest in the year when the election is held, have completed their 18th year.
(2) The extent, however, to which Norwegian citizens, who on Election Day are resident outside the Realm but who satisfy the aforementioned conditions, are entitled to vote is determined by law.
(3) Rules may be laid down by law concerning the right to vote of persons, otherwise entitled to vote, who on Election Day are manifestly suffering from a seriously weakened mental state or a reduced level of consciousness.
§ 51  [Voter Registration]
The rules on the keeping of the poll list and on the registration in the poll list of persons entitled to vote is determined by law.
§ 52  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 53  [Loss of Electoral Rights]
The right to vote is lost by persons:
a) sentenced for criminal offences, in accordance with the relevant provisions laid down by law;
b) entering the service of a foreign power without the consent of the Government;
c) { repealed }
d) { repealed }
e) { repealed }
§ 54  [Term, Re-Election]
The polls are held every fourth year. They must be concluded by the end of September.
§ 55  [Conduct of Polls]
The polls are conducted in the manner prescribed by law. Disputes regarding the right to vote are settled by the poll officials, whose decision may be appealed to the Parliament [Storting].
§ 56  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 57  [Number of Representatives in the Parliament, Constituencies]
(1) The number of representatives to be elected to the Parliament [Storting] is one hundred and sixty-five.
(2) The Realm is divided into nineteen constituencies.
(3) One hundred and fifty of the representatives to the Parliament [Storting] are elected as representatives of constituencies and the remaining nineteen representatives are elected as members at large.
(4) Each constituency has one seat at large.
(5) The number of representatives to the Parliament [Storting] to be chosen from each constituency is determined on the basis of a calculation of the ratio between the number of inhabitants and surface area of each constituency and the number of inhabitants and surface area of the entire Realm, in which each inhabitant counts as one point and each square kilometre counts as 1.8 points. This calculation is made every eighth year.
(6) Specific provisions on the division of the Realm into constituencies and on the allotment of seats in the Parliament [Storting] to the constituencies are determined by law.
§ 58  [Polls in Municipalities]
The polls are held separately for each municipality. At the polls votes are cast directly for representatives to the Parliament [Storting], together with their proxies, to represent the entire constituency.
§ 59  [Proportional Representation, Quorum]
(1) The election of representatives of constituencies is based on proportional representation and the seats are distributed among the political parties in accordance with the following rules.
(2) The total number of votes cast for each party within each separate constituency is divided by 1.4, 3, 5, 7 and so on until the number of votes cast is divided as many times as the number of seats that the party in question may expect to obtain. The party which in accordance with the foregoing obtains the largest quotient is allotted the first seat, while the second seat is allotted to the party with the second largest quotient, and so on until all the seats are distributed.
(3) List alliances are not permitted.
(4) The seats at large are distributed among the parties taking part in such distribution on the basis of the relation between the total number of votes cast for the individual parties in the entire Realm in order to achieve the highest possible degree of proportionality among the parties. The total number of seats in the Parliament [Storting] to be held by each party is determined by applying the rules concerning the distribution of constituency seats correspondingly to the entire Realm and to the parties taking part in the distribution of the seats at large. The parties are then allotted so many seats at large that these, together with the constituency seats already allotted, correspond to the number of seats in the Parliament [Storting] to which the party in question is entitled in accordance with the foregoing. If a party has already through the distribution of constituency seats obtained a greater number of seats than it is entitled to in accordance with the foregoing, a new distribution of the seats at large is carried out exclusively among the other parties, in such a way that no account is taken of the number of votes cast for and constituency seats obtained by the said party.
(6) No party may be allotted a seat at large unless it has received at least 4 per cent of the total number of votes cast in the entire Realm.
(7) Specific provisions concerning the distribution among the constituencies of the seats at large allotted to the parties are determined by law.
§ 60  [Absentee Ballot]
Whether and in what manner those entitled to vote may deliver their ballot papers without personal attendance at the polls is determined by law.
§ 61  [Election Requirement]
No one may be elected as a representative unless he or she is entitled to vote.
§ 62  [Incompatibilities]
(1) Officials who are employed in government ministries, except however the State Secretaries and political advisors, may not be elected as representatives to the Parliament [Storting]. The same applies to officials employed in the diplomatic or consular services.
(2) Members of the Council of State may not attend meetings of the Parliament [Storting] as representatives while holding a seat in the Council of State. Nor may State Secretaries attend as representatives while holding their appointments, and political advisors in government ministries may not attend meetings of the Parliament [Storting] as long as they hold their positions.
§ 63  [Duty to Accept Election]
(1) It is the duty of anyone who is elected as a representative to accept such election, unless:
a) He is elected outside the constituency in which he is entitled to vote.
b) He has as a representative attended all the sessions of the Parliament [Storting] following the previous election.
c) {Repealed}
d) He is a member of a political party and he is elected on a list of candidates which has not been issued by that party.
(2) Rules for the time within which and the manner in which anyone who has the right to refuse election must assert this right is prescribed by law.
(3) It is similarly prescribed by law by what date and in which manner anyone who is elected as representative for two or more constituencies must state which election he will accept.
§ 64  [Credentials of Representatives]
The representatives elected are furnished with credentials, the validity of which is adjudged by the Parliament [Storting].
§ 65  [Reimbursement and Remuneration of Representatives]
(1) Every representative and proxy called to the Parliament [Storting] is entitled to receive from the Treasury such reimbursement as is prescribed by law for travelling expenses to and from the Parliament [Storting], and from the Parliament [Storting] to his home and back again during vacations lasting at least fourteen days.
(2) He is further entitled to remuneration, likewise prescribed by law, for attending the Parliament [Storting].
§ 66  [Immunity]
Representatives on their way to and from the Parliament [Storting], as well as during their attendance there, are exempt from personal arrest, unless they are apprehended in public crimes, nor may they be called to account outside the meetings of the Parliament [Storting] for opinions expressed there. Every representative is bound to conform to the rules of procedure therein adopted.
§ 67  [Membership in Parliament]
The representatives elected in the aforesaid manner constitute the Parliament [Storting] of the Kingdom of Norway.
§ 68  [Assembly of Parliament]
The Parliament [Storting] as a rule assembles on the first weekday in October every year in the capital of the Realm, unless the King, by reason of extraordinary circumstances, such as hostile invasion or infectious disease, designates another town in the Realm for the purpose. Such a decision must be publicly announced in good time.
§ 69  [Summoning by the King]
When the Parliament [Storting] is not assembled, it may be summoned by the King if he finds it necessary.
§ 70  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 71  [Term of Parliament]
The members of the Parliament [Storting] function as such for four successive years.
§ 72  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 73  [Quora in Parliament]
The Parliament [Storting] nominates a President, five Vice-Presidents and two Secretaries. The Parliament [Storting] may not hold a meeting unless at least half of its Members are present. However, Bills concerning amendments to the Constitution may not be dealt with unless at least two thirds of the Members of the Parliament [Storting] are present.
§ 74  [Opening Speech of the King]
(1) As soon as the Parliament [Storting] is constituted, the King, or whoever he appoints for the purpose, opens its proceedings with a Speech, in which he informs it of the state of the Realm and of the issues to which he particularly desires to call the attention of the Parliament [Storting]. No deliberations may take place in the presence of the King.
(2) When the proceedings of the Parliament [Storting] have been opened, the Prime Minister and the Members of the Council of State have the right to attend the Parliament [Storting], and, like its Members, although without voting, to take part in any proceedings conducted in open session, while in matters discussed in closed session only insofar as permitted by the Parliament [Storting].
§ 75  [Powers of Parliament]
It devolves upon the Parliament [Storting]:
a) to enact and repeal laws; to impose taxes, dues, customs and other public charges, which may not, however, remain operative beyond 31 December of the succeeding year, unless they are expressly renewed by a new Parliament [Storting];
b) to raise loans in the name of the Realm;
c)  to supervise the monetary affairs of the Realm;
d) to appropriate the moneys necessary to meet government expenditure;
e) to decide how much is to be paid annually to the King for the Royal Household, and to determine the Royal Family's appanage which may not, however, consist of real property;
f) to have submitted to it the records of the Council of State, and all public reports and documents;
g) to have communicated to it the treaties which the King, on behalf of the State, has concluded with foreign powers;
h) to have the right to require anyone, the King and the Royal Family excepted, to appear before it on matters of State; the exception does not, however, apply to the Royal Princes if they hold any public office;
i) to review the provisional lists of salaries and pensions and to make therein such alterations as it deems necessary;
k) to appoint five auditors, who annually examine the State Accounts and publish extracts of the same in print, for which purpose the Accounts are submitted to the auditors within six months of the end of the year for which the appropriations of the Parliament [Storting] have been made, and to adopt provisions concerning the procedure for authorizing the accounts of government accounting officials;
l) to appoint a person, not a member of the Parliament [Storting], in a manner prescribed by law, to supervise the public administration and all who work in its service, to assure that no injustice is done against the individual citizen;
m) to naturalize aliens.
§ 76  [Legislation]
(1) Every Bill is first proposed in the Parliament [Storting], either by one of its own Members, or by the government through a Member of the Council of State.
(2) Once the bill is passed there, a new deliberation is to take place in the Parliament [Storting], which either approves or rejects it. In the latter case the Bill, with the comments appended by the Parliament [Storting], is again taken into consideration by the Parliament [Storting], which either shelves the Bill or approves it with the said comments.
(3) Between each such deliberation there must be an interval of at least three days.
§ 77  [Royal Assent]
When a Bill has been approved by the Parliament [Storting] in two consecutive meetings, it is sent to the King with a request that it may receive the Royal Assent.
§ 78  [Royal Signature]
(1) If the King assents to the Bill, he appends his signature, whereby it becomes law.
(2) If he does not assent to it, he returns it to the Parliament [Storting] with a statement that he does not for the time being find it expedient to give his assent. In that case the Bill must not again be submitted to the King by the Parliament [Storting] then assembled.
§ 79  [Enactment of Bills]
If a Bill has been passed unaltered by two sessions of the Parliament [Storting], constituted after two separate successive elections and separated from each other by at least two intervening sessions of the Parliament [Storting], without a divergent Bill having been passed by any Parliament [Storting] in the period between the first and last adoption, and it is then submitted to the King with a petition that His Majesty may not refuse his assent to a Bill which, after the most mature deliberation, the Parliament [Storting] considers to be beneficial, it becomes law even if the Royal Assent is not accorded before the Parliament [Storting] goes into recess.
§ 80 [Sessions and Recesses]
(1) The Parliament [Storting] remains in session as long as it deems it necessary and terminates its proceedings when it has concluded its business.
(2) In accordance with the rules of procedure adopted by the Parliament [Storting], the proceedings may be resumed, but they must terminate not later than the last Sunday in the month of September.
(3) Within this time the King is to communicate his decision with regard to the Bills that have not already been decided (cf. Articles 77 to 79), by either confirming or rejecting them. All those which he does not expressly accept are deemed to have been rejected by him.
§ 81  [Assent and Confirmation]
All Acts (with the exception of those mentioned in Article 79) are drawn up in the name of the King, under the seal of the Realm of Norway, and in the following terms:
"We, X, make it publicly known: that the decision of the Parliament [Storting] of the date stated has been laid before Us: (here follows the decision). In consequence whereof We have assented to and confirmed, as We hereby do assent to and confirm the same as Law under Our Hand and the Seal of the Realm."
§ 82  [Information of the Parliament]
The Government is to provide the Parliament [Storting] with all information that is necessary for the proceedings on the matters it submits. No Member of the Council of State may submit incorrect or misleading information to the Parliament [Storting] or its bodies.
§ 83  [Expertise of the Supreme Court]
The Parliament [Storting] may obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court on points of law.
§ 84  [Publicity of the Parliament]
The Parliament [Storting] meets in open session, and its proceedings are published in print, except in those cases where a majority decides to the contrary.
§ 85  [Treason Against the Country]
Any person who obeys an order, the purpose of which is to disturb the liberty and security of the Parliament [Storting], is thereby guilty of treason against the Country.

[Section] D. The Judicial Power

§ 86  [Court of Impeachment]
(1) The Court of Impeachment pronounces judgment in the first and last instance in such proceedings as are brought by the Parliament [Storting] against Members of the Council of State, or of the Supreme Court or of the Parliament [Storting], for criminal or other unlawful conduct in cases where they have breached their constitutional obligations.
(2) The specific rules concerning indictment by the Parliament [Storting] in accordance with this Article are determined by law. However, the limitation period for the institution of indictment proceedings before the Court of Impeachment may not be set at less than 15 years.
(3) The judges of the Court of Impeachment comprise six Members elected by the Parliament [Storting] and the five longest-serving, permanently appointed Members of the Supreme Court, including the President of the Supreme Court. The Parliament [Storting] elects the Members and their deputies for a period of six years. A Member of the Council of State or of the Parliament [Storting] may not be elected as a Member of the Court of Impeachment. In the Court of Impeachment the President of the Supreme Court presides.
(4) Any person sitting in the Court of Impeachment who has been elected by the Parliament [Storting] may not lose his seat in the Court if the period for which he is elected expires before the Court of Impeachment has concluded the proceedings in the case. Nor may a Justice of the Supreme Court who is a Member of the Court of Impeachment lose his seat in the Court, even if he resigns as a Member of the Supreme Court.
§ 87  [Composition and Procedures of the Court of Impeachment]
Specific provisions as to the composition of the Court of Impeachment and its procedures are laid down by law.
§ 88  [Supreme Court]
(1) The Supreme Court pronounces judgment in the final instance. Nevertheless, limitations on the right to bring a case before the Supreme Court may be prescribed by law.
(2) The Supreme Court consists of a President and at least four other Members.
§ 89  [...]
    { Repealed }

§ 90  [No Appeal on Supreme Court Judgments]
The judgments of the Supreme Court may in no case be appealed.
§ 91  [Eligibility to Supreme Court]
No one may be appointed a member of the Supreme Court before reaching 30 years of age.

[Section] E. General Provisions

§ 92  [Eligibility to Public Offices]
(1) To senior official posts in the State may be appointed only Norwegian citizens, men or women, who speak the language of the Country, and who at the same time
a) either were born in the Realm of parents who were then subjects of the State;
b) or were born in a foreign country of Norwegian parents who were not at that time subjects of another State;
c) or hereafter have resided for ten years in the Realm;
d) or have been naturalized by the Parliament [Storting].
(2) Others may, however, be appointed as teachers at the university and institutions of higher learning, as medical practitioners and as consuls in places abroad.
§ 93  [Transfer of Sovereignty Rights to International Organizations]
(1) In order to safeguard international peace and security or to promote the international rule of law and cooperation, the Parliament [Storting] may, by a three-fourths majority, consent that an international organization to which Norway belongs or will belong has the right, within specified fields, to exercise powers which in accordance with this Constitution are normally vested in the authorities of the State, although not the power to alter this Constitution. For the Parliament [Storting] to grant such consent, at least two thirds of the Members of the Parliament [Storting] must be present, as required for proceedings for amending the Constitution.
(2) The provisions of this Article do not apply in cases of membership in an international organization, whose decisions only have application for Norway purely under international law.
§ 94  [General Civil and Criminal Code]
(1) The first, or if this is not possible, the second ordinary Parliament [Storting], makes provision for the publication of a new general civil and criminal code. However the currently applicable laws of the State remain in force, provided they do not conflict with this Constitution or with such provisional ordinances as may be issued in the meantime.
(2) The existing permanent taxes likewise remain operative until the next Parliament [Storting].
§ 95  [Equality Before the Law]
No dispensations, protection from civil arrest, moratoriums or redresses may be granted after the new general code has entered into force.
§ 96  [Presumption of Innocence, Prohibition of Torture]
No one may be convicted except according to law, or be punished except after a court judgment. Interrogation by torture must not take place.
§ 97  [nulla poena sine lege, Prohibition of Retroactive Laws]
No law must be given retroactive effect.
§ 98  [Court Fees]
When special fees are paid to officials of the Courts of Justice, no further payment must be made to the Treasury in respect of the same matter.
§ 99  [Arrest, Military Force]
(1) No one may be taken into custody except in the cases determined by law and in the manner prescribed by law. For unwarranted arrest, or illegal detention, the officer concerned is accountable to the person imprisoned.
(2) The Government is not entitled to employ military force against citizens of the State, except in accordance with the forms prescribed by law, unless any assembly disturbs the public peace and does not immediately disperse after the Articles of the Statute Book relating to riots have been read out clearly three times by the civil authority.
§ 100  [Freedom oft Expression]Details_on_Expression
(1) There is freedom of expression.
(2) No person may be held liable in law for having imparted or received information, ideas or messages unless this can be justified in relation to the grounds for freedom of expression, which are the seeking of truth, the promotion of democracy and the individual's freedom to form opinions. Such legal liability is to be prescribed by law.
(3) Everyone is free to speak his mind frankly on the administration of the State and on any other subject whatsoever. Clearly defined limitations to this right may only be imposed when particularly weighty considerations so justify in relation tot he grounds for freedom of expression.
(4) Prior censorship and other preventative measures may not be applied unless so required in order to protect children and young persons from the harmful influence of moving pictures. Censorship of letters may only be imposed by institutions.
(5) Everyone has a right of access to documents of the State and municipal administration and a right to follow the proceedings of the courts and democratically elected bodies. Limitations to this right may be prescribed by law to protect the privacy of the individual or for other weighty reasons.
(6) It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions that facilitate open and enlightened public discourse.
§ 101  [No Privileges in Trade and Industry]
New and permanent privileges implying restrictions on the freedom of trade and industry must not in future be granted to anyone.
§ 102  [Search]
Search of private homes must not be made except in criminal cases.
§ 103  [Bankruptcy]
Asylum for the protection of debtors may not be granted to such persons as hereafter become bankrupt.
§ 104  [No Forfeiture of Property]
Land and goods may in no case be made subject to forfeiture.
§ 105  [Expropriation, Compensation]
If the welfare of the State requires that any person must surrender his movable or immovable property for the public use, he is to receive full compensation from the Treasury.
§ 106  [Charitable Purposes]
The purchase money, as well as the revenues of the landed property constituting ecclesiastical benefices, is applied solely to the benefit of the clergy and to the promotion of education. The property of charitable foundations is applied solely to the benefit of the foundations themselves.
§ 107  [Preservation of Allodium and Primogeniture]
Allodial right {i.e., an Anglo-Saxon form of real estate in absolute control of the owner without any rents, services etc.} and the right of primogeniture {i.e., exclusive inheritance by the firstborn} must not be abolished. The specific conditions under which these rights continue for the greatest benefit of the State and to the best advantage of the rural population are to be determined by the first or second subsequent Parliament [Storting].
§ 108  [No New Nobility and Fideicommissa]
No earldoms, baronies, entailed estates or fideicommissa may be created in the future.
§ 109  [Defence, Military Service]
(1) As a general rule every citizen of the State is equally bound to serve in the defence of the Country for a specific period, irrespective of birth or fortune.
(2) The application of this principle, and the restrictions to which it is subject, are determined by law.
§ 110  [Work, Unions]
(1) It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling every person capable of work to earn a living by his work.
(2) Specific provisions concerning the right of employees to co-determination at their work place are laid down by law.
§ 110a  [Minority Rights of the Sami]
It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling the Sami people to preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life.
§ 110b  [Environment]
(1) Every person has a right to an environment that is conducive to health and to natural surroundings whose productivity and diversity are preserved. Natural resources should be made use of on the basis of comprehensive long-term considerations whereby this right will be safeguarded for future generations as well.
(2) In order to safeguard their right in accordance with the foregoing paragraph, citizens are entitled to be informed of the state of the natural environment and of the effects of any encroachments on nature that are planned or commenced.
(3) The State authorities issue further provisions for the implementation of these principles.
§ 110c  [Human Rights]
It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to respect and ensure human rights. Specific provisions for the implementation of treaties hereof are determined by law.
§ 111  [State Symbols]
The form and colours of the Norwegian Flag are determined by law.
§ 112  [Amendments]
(1) If experience shows that any part of this Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway ought to be amended, the proposal to this effect must be submitted to the first, second or third Parliament [Storting] after a new General Election and be publicly announced in print. But it is left to the first, second or third Parliament [Storting] after the following General Election to decide whether or not the proposed amendment will be adopted. Such amendment must never, however, contradict the principles embodied in this Constitution, but solely relate to modifications of particular provisions which do not alter the spirit of the Constitution, and such amendment requires that two thirds of the Parliament [Storting] agree thereto.
(2) An amendment to the Constitution adopted in the manner aforesaid is signed by the President and the Secretary of the Parliament [Storting], and is sent to the King for public announcement in print, as an applicable provision of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - 27.6.2020 / Thanks to F. Herger. / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.