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Constitutional Background

All amendments up to and including those of 2012 have been incorporated into this consolidated ICL edition of the constitution. An annotated version of the ICL-edition is available as a book (ISBN 9-783-8370-0712-1) and the most recent annotated text in PDF-Format is available as a free download at

History and News

  • 27 Oct 1994: 42nd Constitutional amendment -- a major revision introducing, among other rules, affirmative action for women (Art. 3) and environmental protection (Art. 20a).
  • 28 June 1993: 39th Constitutional amendment -- a major revision restricting asylum provisions.
  • 24 June 1968: 17th Constitutional amendment -- a major revision introducing emergency procedures.
  • 19 March 1956: 7th Constitutional amendment -- a major revision ("Wehrpflichtnovelle") re-introducing the draft.
  • 23 May 1949: Constitution adopted under the name "Basic Law" ("Grundgesetz").

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - October 8th, 2013 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.