International Constitutional Law

ABEDA: Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa.
ACC: Arab Cooperation Council.
ACCT: Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique; see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation.
ACP (African, Carribean, and Pacific Countries = GO) now (1995) 70 members states, many of which are former French colonies. 
ADB (AfDB, African Development Bank = GO) is one of the institutions organizing multilateral funding {cf. IMF}. 
ADB: AsDB, Asian Development Bank.
AEC (African Economic Community = GO) was founded by the treaty of Abuja (Nigeria) on 3 June 1991 {cf. 31 ILM 253-331 (1992)}, the AEC is the OAU's attempt to establish the African Common Market by the year 2000. It was adopted and signed by 49 out of 51 OAU member states.
AFESD: Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development.
AFTA (Asian Free Trade Association = GO) Free Trade Organization of ASEAN, founded on the fourth ASEAN summit in Jan 1992 to achieve a free trade zone within 15 years. AFTA implements CEPR (Common Effective Preferential Tariff) for fifteen goods to reach a maximum customs tariff of 5% until the year 2000. 
AG: Andean Group.
AI  (Amnesty International = NGO) is an  international human rights organization. 
AL: Arab League.
ALADI: Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion; see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA).
AMF: Arab Monetary Fund.
AMU: Arab Maghreb Union.
ANZCER (Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement = GO) This trety of 1983, revised 1988, successfully established a free trade zone between the two countries since 1 July 1990. Future integration will include services, but not political union. 
ANZUS: Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty.
AP (Andes Pact = GO) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela have announced a free trade zone for the mid-90s with the ultimate goal of a common market. 
APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation = GO) APEC is the biggest economic cooperation in South East Asia, trying to establish internal free trade until 2020 with the core countries getting there in 2010. Members are countries with Pacific coastlines: Australia, Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapur, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. Applications for membership have been filed (1993) by: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Guinea Bissau, India, Peru, Mexico, and Russia. The members currently (Nov 1995) account for about 40% of world trade. According to a proposal of Malaysia's leader Mahathir Mohamad, a smaller block of more self-confident Asian countries might found a firmer union excluding the United States. 
ARF (Asian Regional Forum = GO) The ARF is an organization to establish regular talks of "dialogue partners", i.e., the U.S., Japan, Canada, the EU, Australia, and New Zealand, with governments of South Asia. 
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations = GO) ASEAN, originally founded in July 1967 as an anti-communist association, started economic cooperation in 1976 and is today a 7 nation organization with Vietnam as the newest (July 1995) and the first communist member state. It plans to establish the world's biggest free trade zone AFTA with 500m consumers until 2003 (2006 for Vietnam) by lowering import duties to a maximum of 5%. The other member states are Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines. On 29 July 1995, Laos announced its application for membership after 1997. Myanmar has already applied and Kambodscha is expected to apply in the near future. This might lead to the ASEAN of the 10 by the year 2000. The ASEAN dialogue partners are Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Korea, the EU, and the U.S. An 1980 agreement with the EU about development aid mostly benefitted the Philippines and Indonesia. The ASEAN Regional Forum is East Asia's only regional dialogue for security matters. 
BAD: Banque Africaine de Developpement; see African Development Bank (AfDB).
BADEA: Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique; see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA).
BCIE: Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico; see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE).
BDEAC: Banque de Developpment des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale; see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC).
Benelux: Belgium Netherland Luxemburg Economic Union.
BID: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo; see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB).
BIS: Bank for International Settlements.
BOAD: Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement; see West African Development Bank (WADB).
BSEC: Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone.
CACM: Central American Common Market.
CAEU: Council of Arab Economic Unity.
Caricom: Caribbean Community and Common Market.
CBSS: Council of the Baltic Sea States.
CCC: Customs Cooperation Council.
CDB: Caribbean Development Bank.
CE: Council of Europe.
CEAO: Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest; see West African Economic Community (CEAO).
CEEAC (Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale = GO) This Economic Community of Central African States was established in breville (Gabon) on 18 Oct 1981 and comprises now (1993) 10 states: Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome & Principe, Tchad, and Zaire. 
CEFTA (Central European Free Trade Area = GO) The CEFTA was founded in 1992 between the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. On 11 Sep 1995, Slovenia joined. Bulgaria and Romania are expected to join in 1996; the Baltic states following afterwards. The aim is to realize a free trade zone until 2000 with Poland fully included in 2002. It is unclear if CEFTA will be used as a starting point for integrating into EU, NATO, WTO, and OECD or if it will establish a Central European Bank to co-operate with the IMF. Trading within the CEFTA is much less intense than trading of the memberstates with the EU.  The CEFTA agreement was printed in 34 ILM 3 (1995) which is available online via LEXIS (INTLAW library; ASIL file) and WESTLAW (ILM).
CEI: Central European Initiative.
CEMA: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA or Comecon.
CEPGL: Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs; see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL).
CERN: Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire; see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
CEU (Central European Union = GO) Group of countries establishing the CEFTA
CFA (French Franc in Africa = currency) The french franc zone of central and western Africa includes the 13 countries Cote d'Ivore, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. It is tied to the French Franc. 
CFE (Conventional Forces in Europe = treaty) Arms reduction treaty to set ceilings on each of the 30 member countries' military equipment. Next reduction talks are due in Vienna in 1997.
CG: Contadora Group.
CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States = GO)
CITES: see Endangered Species.
CMEA: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA); also known as Comecon.
COCOM: Coordinating Committee on Export Controls.
COMECON (CEMA, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; also known as CMEA = GO) The former communist trading block. 
Commonwealth  (GO) This British organization out of colonial past encompasses the following nation states: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji (member since 1931, left 1987, rejoined 1997), The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria (suspended since 1995), Pakistan (member since 1947, left 1972, rejoined 1989), Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa (member since 1931, left 1961, rejoined 1994), Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain with Northern Ireland and Colonies, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Comsat: Communications Satellite Corporation.
CP: Colombo Plan.
CPLP (Community of Portuguese Language Countries = GO) The Organization is to be constituted in Lisbon in mid-1996 as a 7-nation Lusophone Commonwealth to encompass Protugal and the formerly Protuguese colonies Angola, Brazil (independent since 1822), Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Sao Tome & Principe with more than 170 million Protuguese speakers. Other former colonies East Timor (occupied by Indonesia since 1975), Macao (falling back to China in 1999), and Goa (a state of India since 1961) will probably not be part of CPLP. The group will lobby for Brazil's permanent membership in the UN Security Council and East Timor's self-determination.
CSCE: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe; see Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
EA (Enterprise of the Americas = no Org.) U.S.-President Bush announced this plan of a free trade zone for the whole continent. Since 1990, the U.S. has concluded framework agreements with Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Colombia, and Mexico. 
EADB: East African Development Bank.
EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development = GO) EBRD is a multilateral development bank active in the former Soviet Union states, i.e., in Central and Eastern Europe. 
EC (European Community = GO) The EC, now EU, formerly EEC (European Economic Community), came into being on 1 Jan 1958 as a six state community of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands after the conclusion of the Treaty of Rome (Italy) in 1957. It grew by now (1996) to become the most important part of the EU. Significant steps were the increase of membership in 1973 (Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom), 1981 (Greece), 1986 (Spain, Portugal), and 1995 (Austria, Finland, Sweden) to now (1995) 15 member states. 
ECA: Economic Commission for Africa.
ECAFE: Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East; see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).
ECE: Economic Commission for Europe.
ECLA: Economic Commission for Latin America; see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).
ECLAC: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
ECO: Economic Cooperation Organization.
ECOSOC: Economic and Social Council.
ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States = GO) The ECOWAS was established on 28 May 1975 in Lagos (Nigeria) and now (1993) encompasses 16 States: Benin, Burkina Fasso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. 
ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community; see European Union (EU).
ECWA: Economic Commission for Western Asia; see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA).
EEC: European Economic Community; see European Union (EU).
EEA (European Economic Area = GO) A free trade agreement between the EC and the bulk of the EFTA countries, founded on 2 Mai 1992. Switzerland has opted out by referendum on 5 Dec 1992. The character of the EEA might be preliminary since most members applied for membership in or already joined the EU
EFTA (European Free Trade Agreement = GO) Founded in 1960, the EFTA was supposed to balance the EC dominance. The current (1995) members are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland -- all countries not yet members of the EU. Switzerland is the only EFTA state that, by referendum of 5 Dec 1992, opted out of closer EU-association with the EU inside the EEA. The EFTA has free trade agreements with Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It has cooperation agreements with Egypt, Morocco, and Tuniesia. 
EIB: European Investment Bank.
ESA: European Space Agency.
ESCAP: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
ESCWA: Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia.
EU (European Union = GO) There is a separate page for the European Union
Euratom: European Atomic Energy Community; see European Community (EC).
Eutelsat: European Telecommunications Satellite Organization.
Ex-Im: Export-Import Bank of the United States.
FAO  (Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN = GO)
FLS: Front Line States.
Francophonie (La ~ = GO) This French organization out of colonial past encompasses 50 nations. {Cf. also CFA}
FRG: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990.
FSU: former Soviet Union.
FTAA (Free-Trade Area of the Amercias = GO) Pan-American free trade has been the goal of 34 of the hemisphere's leaders (all except Cuba's Fidel Castro) during a Dec 1994 meeting in Miami when the FTAA was scheduled to be installed until 2005. Formal negotiations are due in Santiage de Chile, March 1998. The FTAA is supposed to co-exist with NAFTA and Mercosur
FYROM: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
FZ: Franc Zone.
G8  (Group of 8 = GO) Formerly, the G7 Industry Nations included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Russia has become a member in 1997, thereby forming the "G8".
G-77: Group of 77.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade = GO) Subsumed by the WTO on 1 Jan 1995, the GATT was founded in 1947 and now (1995) includes 125 countries, latest members being Slovenia (30 Oct 1994) and Guinea (8 Dec 1994). Following the Uruguay-Round which ended in Dec 1993, the GATT has been included into the WTO. According to Art. I GATT, partners have to grant each other the best conditions they grant any of the others (most favored nation status). Art. VI GATT provides for anti-dumping measures. Art. XXIV GATT, however, allows for non-discriminatory regional trade agreements; free trade areas and customs unions are permitted as long as they cover "substantially all trade" and do not increase external trade barriers "on the whole". This vague provision has led to tacit endorsement of GOs like NAFTA and the EU. According to the GATT structure, so-called Rounds (e.g., the Uruguay Round) are bargaining for new policies. So-called GATT Panels are discussing violations in specific cases. There have been 8 GATT Rounds altogether: 1st Round (1947 in Geneva on Tariffs), 2nd Round (1949, Annecy, Tariffs), 3rd Round (1951, Torquay, Tariffs), 4th Round (1956, Geneva, Tariffs), Dillon Round (1960-61, Geneva, Tariffs), Kennedy Round (1964-67, Geneva, Tariffs and Anti-Dumping), Tokyo Round (1973-79, Geneva, Tariffs, Non-Tariff Measures, "Framework"-Agreements), Uruguay Round (1986-94, Tariffs, Non-Tariff Measures, Rules, Services, Intellectual Property, Dispute Settlement, Textiles, Agriculture, Creation of WTO). 
GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council = GO) Chaired by Saudi Arabia, this council coordinates the oppostion against Iran, Iraq, and Israel. It tries to stabilize the monarchic structure of its memberstates (i.e., Bahrain, Dubai, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) against islamist and democratic movements.
GDP: gross domestic product.
GDR: German Democratic Republic (East Germany); used for information dated before 3 October 1990.
GNP: gross national product.
Greenpeace (NGO) Agency for environmental protection by actions of civil resistance. 
GRT: gross register ton.
GWP: gross world product.
HW: Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal.
IADB: Inter-American Development Bank.
IAEA  (International Atomic Energy Agency of the UN = GO)
IBEC: International Bank for Economic Cooperation.
IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).
ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization.
ICC: International Chamber of Commerce.
ICEM: Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration; see International Organization for Migration (IOM).
ICFTU: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions; see World Confederation of Labor (WCL).
ICJ: International Court of Justice.
ICM: Intergovernmental Committee for Migration; see International Organization for Migration (IOM).
ICRC: International Committee of the Red Cross.
ICRM: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
IDA (International Development Association = GO) The IDA is the soft-loan arm of the World Bank
IDB: Islamic Development Bank.
IEA: International Energy Agency.
IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development.
IFC (International Finance Corporation = NGO) The IFC is a World Bank offshot. 
IFCTU: International Federation of Christian Trade Unions.
IFRCS: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
IGADD: Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development.
IIB: International Investment Bank.
ILO: International Labor Organization.
IMCO: Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization; see International Maritime Organization (IMO).
IMF  (International Monetary Fund = GO) The IMF, like IDA, IBRD, and ADB one of the institutions organizing multilateral funding, grants funding of country development on the basis of strikt country specific guidelines for establishing market economy and issues reviews about countries' economy. Current (1996) managing director is Michel Camdessus. Its board of governors is ruled by finance ministers and central bankers. 
IMO: International Maritime Organization.
Inmarsat: International Mobile Satellite Organization.
Intelsat: International Telecommunications Satellite Organization.
Interpol: International Criminal Police Organization.
Intersputnik: International Organization of Space Communications.
IOC: International Olympic Committee.
IOM: International Organization for Migration.
ISO: International Organization for Standardization.
ITC  (International Trade Center of the UN = GO)
ITU: International Telecommunication Union.
LAES: Latin American Economic System.
LAIA: Latin American Integration Association.
LAS: League of Arab States; see Arab League (AL).
LDC: less developed country.
LLDC: least developed country.
Lomé (Treaty) Series of conventions between 70 poor ACP countries and the EU about community aid. According to the new deal signed on 4 Nov 1995 in Mauritius, all trade privileges will expire until 2000. Already (Nov 1995), 15 countries whose governments are considered undeserving have been dropped from the plan; among them Nigeria, Zaire, and Sudan. South Africa will only partially benefit from Lomé privileges. 
London Convention:see Marine Dumping.
LORCS: League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS).
LOS: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Marecs: Maritime European Communications Satellite.
Marine Dumping: Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter.
Marine Life Conservation:Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas.
MARPOL: see Ship Pollution.
MAU (Maghreb Arab Union = GO)  Created in Marrakech (Morocco) on 17 Feb 1989, this economic union now (1993) comprises Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. 
MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del Cono Sur; see also Southern Cone Common Market = GO) South American partnership, orginally of Brazil and Argentina (1991), now (June 1996) also including Paraguay and Uruguay. Mercosur signed an Interinstitutional Cooperation Agreement with the EU in 1992 and an Interregional Commercial and Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement with the EU in 1995. The first goal is to establish a customs union with a common external tariff averaging 14%. On 25 June 1996, Chile signed a free-trade agreement with Mercosur, effective from 1 Oct 1996, which makes Chile an associate member and Mercosur a 220 million people market. Bolivia hopes to do the same until Dec 1996 and Venezuela might follow. 
MINURSO: United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara.
MTCR: Missile Technology Control Regime.
NACC: North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area = GO) The NAFTA, after being founded in 1988 and in force since 1 Jan 1989 between the US and Canada, also comprises Mexico since 1993. It provides for abolishment of customs duties until 1 Jan 1998. The extended treaty from Aug 1992 not only includes Mexico, but also tries to implement a common market for goods and services within 15 years. The NAFTA does not intend to implement a customs union or common international trade policies. US President George Bush first established the plan to extend NAFTA all over America from Alaska to Fireland which might be realized by 2005 (cf. FTAA). Since July 1995, Chile conducts talks about membership. But the Mexican economic crisis made southern extensions of NAFTA unlikely, pushing Chile into Mercosur
NAM: Nonaligned Movement.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization = GO) The predominantly military organization between the US and West European states. Very controversial is the east-extension of NATO; current (1997) applicants are Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. After Russia partially waived its opposition, President Boris Yeltsin and the heads of government of all 16 NATO countries will sign a "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Co-operation and Security" in Paris on 27 May 1997 to be followed by admission talks with three (Poland, Hungary, Szech Republic) or five (Slovenia, Romania) East European countries in Madrid on 8 July. 
NC: Nordic Council.
NEA: Nuclear Energy Agency.
NIB: Nordic Investment Bank.
NIC: newly industrializing country; see newly industrializing economy (NIE).
NIE: newly industrializing economy.
NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone.
NSG: Nuclear Suppliers Group.
NTB: Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water.
OAPEC: Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries.
OAS  (Organization of American States = GO)
OAU (Organization of African Union = GO) The OAU has now (1993) 51 member states.
ODA: official development assistance.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development = GO) The organization is a club of rich nations. 
OECS: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.
OIC: Organization of the Islamic Conference.
ONUMOZ: see United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ).
ONUSAL: United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador.
OPANAL: Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe; see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
OPEC (GO) The oil cartel dominated by Saudi Arabia is trying to limit its oil exports to a constant rate to ensure relative price stability. Oil exporters outside the cartel are the former members of the Soviet Union, Iraq (crrently under UN export sanctions), and Nigeria. 
OPIC (Overseas Private Investment Corporation = NGO) The OPIC (partly) guarantees private investments of American (U.S.) businessmen in developing markets such as sub-Sahara Africa. 
OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe = GO) The organization supervises elections, e.g., in Bosnia and Albania. 
Ozone Layer Protection:Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer.
PCA: Permanent Court of Arbitration.
PDRY: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990.
PFP: Partnership for Peace.
PTA (Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa = GO) This economic community was established on 21 Dec 1981 in Lusaka (Zambia) and comprises east, central, and southern Africa with current (1993) member states of: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 
Ramsar: see Wetlands.
Red Cross  (NGO) is a first aid service founded in Switzerland. 
RG: Rio Group.
SAARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.
SACU: Southern African Customs Union.
SADC (Southern African Development Community = GO) This GO was originally set up in 1980 to reduce the region's economic dependency on apartheid South Africa.  It later (1995) embracded majority-ruled South Africa and set about acquiring a new political and security role.  South 'Africa's economy is now (1996) still about three times as large as the combined economies of the 13 other members (Angola, Botswana, Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Seychelles, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). 
SADCC: Southern African Development Coordination Conference; see Southern African Development Community (SADC).
SELA: Sistema Economico Latinoamericana; see Latin American Economic System (LAES).
SFRY: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; dissolved 5 December 1991.
Ship Pollution: Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL).
Sparteca: South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement.
SPC: South Pacific Commission.
SPF: South Pacific Forum.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty = treaty) A convention about limits on strategic nuclear arsenals of the two military blocks dominated by U.S. and Russian superpowers. START-1 and START-2 are concluded; START-3 is planned for 1997. 
TAT: Trans-Atlantic Telephone.
Tropical Timber 83:International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983.
Tropical Timber 94:International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994.
UAE: United Arab Emirates.
UDEAC: Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale; see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC).
UK: United Kingdom.
UN  (United Nations = GO) The UN comprises nearly all nation states of the world. Its most important decisions regarding sanctions and military activity are those voted in the UN Security Council.
UNAMIR: United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda.
UNAVEM III: United Nations Angola Verification Mission III.
UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development = GO) The UNCED provides information via gopher*
UNCITRAL  (UN Commission on International Trade Law = GO)
UNCRO: United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia.
UNCSD (UN Commission on Sustainable Development = GO)
UNCTAD  (UN Conference on Trade and Development = GO)
UNDCP  (UN Drug Control Program = GO)
UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force.
UNDP  (UN Development Program = GO)
UNEP  (UN Environment Program = GO) This organization sponsors conventions and conferences like The Earth Summit (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) of 3-14 June 1992.
UNESCO  (UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization = GO)
UNFICYP: United Nations Force in Cyprus.
UNFPA: United Nations Fund for Population Activities; see UN Population Fund (UNFPA).
UNHCR  (UN High Commissioner for Refugees = GO)
UNICEF  (UN Children's Fund = GO) the world childcare organization also has  its own gopher 
UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
UNIFIL: United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon.
UNIKOM: United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission.
UNITAR: United Nations Institute for Training and Research.
UNMIH: United Nations Mission in Haiti.
UNMOGIP: United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan.
UNMOT: United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan.
UNOMIG: United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia.
UNOMIL: United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia.
UNOMOZ: United Nations Operation in Mozambique.
UNOMUR: United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda.
UNOSOM II: United Nations Operation in Somalia II.
UNPREDEP: United Nations Preventive Deployment Force.
UNPROFOR: United Nations Protection Force.
UNRISD: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
UNRWA: United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.
UNTAC: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.
UNTSO: United Nations Truce Supervision Organization.
UNU: United Nations University.
UPU: Universal Postal Union.
US: United States.
USAEF (US-African Economic Forum = GO) The USAEF established in 1997 under the Clinton administration continues the African export of some goods duty-free of the "Generalized System of Preferences" and extends it to annual high-level talks with reform-oriented African governments. It ultimately looks for free-trade agreements of the U.S. with sub-Saharan countries. 
USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union); used for information dated before 25 December 1991.
USSR/EE: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/Eastern Europe.
WADB: West African Development Bank.
WCL: World Confederation of Labor.
WCO (World Customs Organization = GO)
Wetlands: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially As Waterfowl Habitat.
WEU (Western European Union = GO) East European countries have now associated partner status in this organization which is expected to approve a White Paper on European Security in Madrid on 13 Nov 1995. 
WFC: World Food Council.
WFP (World Food Program = GO) A UN Program against famine. 
WFTU: World Federation of Trade Unions.
World Bank  (UN ~ = GO).
Whaling: International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling.
WHO  (World Health Organization = GO) is an UN organization and also has a gopher.
WIPO  (World International Property Organization of the UN = GO)
WMO: World Meteorological Organization.
WTO  (World Trade Organization = GO) The WTO in Geneva was founded by the GATT countries by agreement from 8 Dec 1994 following the Uruguay Round and starting on 1 Jan 1995 when already 81 countries which among them represent more than 90% of world trade had adopted the establishing agreement. The WTO extends GATT beyond trade policy. The GATT 1947 coexists until 31 Dec 1995. The first General Director of the WTO was former GATT Director Peter Sutherland.
WTO, also WToO: World Tourism Organization.
YAR: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen]; used for information dated before 22 May 1990.
ZC: Zangger Committee.

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - August 28th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.