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Key-System Index Page Document Table of Contents

    { Drafted in: 1996 }
    { Revised in: Feb 2004 }
    { ICL Document Status: 2008 }

    { Editor's note:
    This is the old edition of the ICL Key System (1996-2008). It provided a hierarchichal order of content specifications by Key Numbers (e.g.: 5255). Links from and to constitutional documents connect the Key System with the respective provisions. However, the brute force approach to indiscriminately key-indexing all features of the constitions has failed; it was too much work for too little insight. The current edition of the Key System therefore tries to focus on the more exemplary or remarkable features of constitutional documents. }

 

Part I  Foundation (1)

 

Chapter I  Preamble (11)

No Preamble (111): be, da, fi, is, it, lu, mt, nl, ro, sa, sn, sw, uk
Long Preamble (112): cf, fj, ir, sy
 

Chapter II  State Definition (12)

State People (121)
State Territory (122)
 Territories (1221)
 Colonies (1222)
State Establishment (123)
State Power (124)
 

Chapter III  State Principles (13)

Sovereignty (131)
Representative Democracy (132)
 Direct Democracy (1321)
 Autocracy (1322)
 Dictatorship (1323)
 Democratic Socialism (1324)
 Democratic Centralism (1325)
Republic (133)
 Monarchy (1331)
  Marriage Restrictions (13311): be, sw
 Constitutional Monarchy (1332)
 Connection with Monarchy (1333)
 Symbolic Monarchy (1334)
Federalism (134)
 Unitary State (1341)
 Community of States (1342)
Regionalism (135)
 Decentralized Powers (1351)
 Regional Autonomy (1352)
 Fiscal Autonomy of Regions (1353)
 Local Autonomy (1354)
 Mutual Assistance (1355)
 Minister Representatives (1356)
 Minority Rights (1357)
  Autochthonous Communities (13571):
  Gipsy Communities (13572):
Social State (136)
Secularity (137)
 Religious State (1371)
 State Religion (1372): af
 Civil Marriage (1373): lu, ro
Rule of Law (138)
 Constitutional Supremacy (1381)
 Binding Constitution (1382)
 Binding Public International Law (1383)
 Binding Human Rights (1384)
 Separation of Powers (1385)
 

Chapter IV  State Symbols, Citizenship, Language (14)

Flag (141)
Anthem (142)
Capital (143)
Motto (144): cb,
Emblem (145)
Seal (146)
Coat of Arms (147): be, cf, er, hr, ma, np, ro, wa
 

Chapter V  Citizenship (15)

Born in the State (151)
Naturalization (152)
 

Chapter VI  Language (16)

Official Language (161)
Minority Language (162)
 

Chapter VII  State Objectives (17)

Justice (1701)
Human Rights (1702)
National Autonomy (1703)
Self-Determination (1704)
Helth Care (1705)
Social Welfare (1706)
National Unity (1707)
Culture (1708)
History (1709)
Environment (1710)
Forests (1711)
Intergenerational Equity (1712)
Nature (1713)
Nature's Rights (1714)
Morality (1715)
Civic Virtues (1716)
Family Planning (1717)
Peace (1718)
Decentralization (1719)
Self-Government (1720)
 

Part II  Elections (2)

 

Chapter I  Eligibility (21)

 

Chapter II  Electoral Principles (22)

Free Elections (221)
General Elections (222)
Direct Elections (223)
Equal Elections (224)
Secret Elections (225)
 

Chapter III  Electoral System (23)

 

Chapter IV  Representation (24)

Proportional Representation (241)
Minimal Representation (242)
Revolving Replacement (243)
Fixed Absolute Representation (244)
Precedence of Election (245)
 

Chapter V  Scrutiny of Elections (25)

Scrutiny by Parliament (251)
Scrutiny by Constitutional Council (252)
 

Part III  Institutions (3)

 

Chapter I  Ineligibility (31)

 

Chapter II  Incompatibility (32)

Horizontal Incompatibility (321)
Vertical Incompatibility (322)
Economic Incompatibility (323)
Military Incompatibility (324)
 

Chapter III  Attendance (33)

Quorum (331)
Mandatory Attendance (332)
 

Chapter IV  Term (34)

Dissolution (341)
Governmental Term (342)
Parliamentary Term (343)
 

Chapter V  Majority (35)

Simple Majority (351)
Absolute Majority (352)
Qualified Majority (353)
 

Part IV  Offices (4)

 

Chapter I  Oath of Office (41)

 

Chapter II Responsibility (42)

Collective Responsibility of Ministers (421)
Rights of Members of Parliament (422)
Conscience (423)
Imperative Mandate (424)
Bound by Conscience (425)
Servants of All (426)
 

Chapter III  Indemnity (43)

Presidential Indemnity (431)
Parliamentary Indemnity (432)
 

Chapter IV  Immunity (44)

Presidential Immunity (441)
Ministerial Immunity (442)
Parliamentary Immunity (443)
 

Chapter V  Impeachement (45)

Political Impeachement (451)
Criminal Impeachement (452)
Impeachement by Censure (453)
 

Chapter VI Remuneration (46)

Parliamentary Remuneration (461)
Limitation of Alteration (462):
Fixed Remuneration (463)
 

Chapter VII  Liability (47)

Punishment for Wrongful Membership (471)
 

Part V  Powers (5)

 

Chapter I  Head of State (51)

be, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, ku, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
President (511)
Diplomatic Affairs (512)
Power of Command (513)
Right of Pardon (514)
Foreign Affairs (515)
 

Chapter II  Executive (52)

Head of Government (521)
President (522)
Prime Minister (523)
Chancellor (524)
National Government (525): be, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fi, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mu, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
 Federal Government (5251)
 Ratification Power (5252)
 National Ordinances (5253)
 Regulations (5254)
 Armed Forces: cb, ir = 5255:
 International Government (5256)
 Supranational Government (5257)
State Government (526)
Regional Government (527)
Local Government (528): be, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, sa, sp, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, wa
 

Chapter III  Legislative (53)

Constitutional Convention (531)
National Parliament (532): be, bk, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fi, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mu, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, tw, uk, us, wa
 Policy Discussions (5321)
 Motions of Censure (5322)
 General Legislation (5323): be, bk, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, ei, en, er, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ma, mg, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
  Constitutional Amendments (53231)
  Ratification of Treaties (53232)
  Economic Regulations (53233)
  Sovereignty Acts (53234)
  Program Acts (53235)
  State of Emergency (53236)
 Procedures (5324)
  Initiative (53241)
   Bills (532411)
   Government Bills (532412)
   Parliament Bills (532413)
   Private Member Bills (532414)
   Public Initiatives (532415): bo, mg, ro, sp
  Deliberation (53242)
  Unconstitutional Law (53243)
  Referendum (53244): bo, cf, fr, hr, lu, po, ro, sp, ts, wa
  Veto (53245)
  Countersignature (53246)
  Promulgation (53247)
  Effective Date (53248)
 Finance (5325): be, bk, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fi, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
  Budget Law (53251)
   Budget Initiatives (532511)
   Budget Procedures (532512)
   Budget Authorization (532513)
   Secular Budget (532514)
  Tax Bills (53252)
  Equalization of Finances (53253)
   Equalization Scheme (532531)
   Consolidation of Debts Scheme (532532)
   Reserve Fund (532533)
 Treaties (5326)
  Signing Treaties (53261)
  Ratification of Treaties (53262)
  Revoking Unratified Treaties (53263)
Senate (533)
 Federal Council (5331)
State Parliament (534)
Regional Parliament (535)
Local Parliament (536)
 

Chapter IV  Judicature (54)

Courts (541): be, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, ez, fi, fj, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, lu, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
 Independence of Courts (5411)
 Constitutional Council (5412): cb
 Constitutional Court (5413): be, bk, bo, bu, cc, cf, ei, en, er, ez, fi, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, nl, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sn, sw, sy, tw, us, wa
  Supreme Court (54131)
  Individual Complaint (54132): cf, mg, mt, ro, ro
  Popular Complaint (54133):
 National Courts (5414)
  Federal Courts (54141)
  High Court (54142)
Judges (542)
 Independence of Judges (5421): bo, bu, cc, cf, da, ei, en, ez, fj, fr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, ku, lh, lo, lu, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sp, sy, ts, tw, uk, wa
 Election (5422)
  Nomination (54221)
 Tenure (5423)
  Term Limit (54231)
  Office Until Retirement (54232)
  Office During Good Behavior (54233)
 Impeachement of Judges (5424)
Jurisdiction (543)
 Ordinary Jurisdiction (5431)
 Appelate Jurisdiction (5432)
Ombudsmen (544): fi, fj, hr, ma, pa, ro, wa
 

Part VI  Subjects (6)

 

Chapter I  Rights in General (61)

Fundamental Rights (611)
 Human Dignity (6111): aj, al, cb, lg, nz,
 Individual Autonomy (6112)
 Pursuit of Happiness (6113)
Inalienability (612)
Inviolability (613)
Applicability (614)
 Natural Persons (6141)
 Legal Persons (6142): ro, sp, wa
 Binding on the State (6143)
 Binding on Private Parties (6144)
 

Chapter II  Liberty (62)

bo, bu, ca, cf, ei, en, ez, fr, gr, hk, is, it, ja, lh, lo, mk, np, pa, pl, ro, rs, rw, sp, tw, us
Personal Integrity (621)
 Right to Life (6211)
 Right to Bodily Integrity (6212)
 Personal Freedom (6213)
 Capital Punishment (6214)
 Corporal Punishment (6215)
 Torture (6216)
Property (622): be, bk, bo, bu, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, fi, fj, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, ku, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
 Ownership (6221)
 Possession (6222)
 Compensation (6223)
 Transfer (6224)
 Testate (6225)
 Inherit (6226)
 Copyright (6227)
 Socialist Public Ownership (6228)
 Property of Foreigners (6229): be, bo, cf, hr, lu, mg, mu, ro, wa
Belief (623)
 Worship (6231)
 Religious Instructions (6232)
 No Forced Military Duties (6233)
 Religious Observances (6234)
Communication (624)
 Freedom of Information (6241)
 Freedom of Expression (6242): be, bk, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, da, ei, en, er, fi, fj, gr, hk, hr, ir, it, ja, ks, ku, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mo, mr, mt, mu, nl, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sn, sp, sw, sy, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
  Freedom of Media (62421)
  Freedom of the Press (62422)
  Prohibition of Censorship (62423)
  State Control (62424)
 Right to Assemble (6243)
  Peaceful Assemblies (62431)
  Freedom of Demonstration (62432)
 Right to Associate (6244)
  Political Parties (62441)
   Foundation (624411)
   Function (624412)
   Organisation (624413)
  Marriage (62442)
Right to Privacy (625)
 Privacy of Communication (6251)
 Privacy of the Home (6252)
  No Quarter for Soldiers (62521)
 Secrecy of Mail (6253)
 Secrecy of Telecommunication (6254)
Economic Rights (626)
 Right to Work (6261)
  Access to Profession (62611)
  Prohibition of Forced Labor (62612)
 Right to Conduct Business (6262)
 Freedom of Research (6263)
 Freedom of Science (6264)
 Freedom of Teaching (6265)
Political Rights (627)
 Electoral Rights (6271): be, bo, bu, ca, cf, da, ei, en, er, fi, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, is, it, ja, ks, lh, lo, ma, mo, mr, mt, nl, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us
  Right to Vote (62711)
  Right to be Elected (62712)
  Age Limits (62713)
  Electoral Equality (62714)
  Womens' Right to Vote (62715)
 Right to Petition (6272)
 Freedom of Citizenship (6273)
  Right to Citizenship (62731)
  Right to Give Up Citizenship (62732)
 Right to Self-Determination (6274): hr, po
  Membership in Regional Entities (62741)
  Local Government (62742)
  Local Administration (62743)
 Right to Civil Disobedience (6275): cf
 Right to Political Parties (6276)
  Right to Foundation (62761)
  Right to Activities (62762)
Other Liberties (628)
 Freedom to Move (6281)
  Freedom to Enter (62811)
  Freedom to Leave (62812)
 Freedom of Procreation (6282)
 Freedom of Childrearing (6283)
 Choice of Religious Instructions (6284)
 

Chapter III  Equality (63)

be, bk, bo, bu, ca, cc, cf, ei, en, er, fi, fj, fr, gr, hk, hr, ir, it, ja, ks, ku, lh, lo, lu, ly, ma, mg, mk, mr, mu, nl, np, pa, pl, po, ro, rs, rw, sa, sn, sp, sw, sy, sz, ts, tw, uk, us, wa
General Equality (631)
 Equal Protection (6311)
 Matrimonial Equality (6312): mg, ro, sp
 Abolishment of Nobility (6313)
  No Title of Nobility (63131)
  No Title in Names (63132)
Citizen Equality (632)
 Public Office (6321)
Prohibition of Discrimination (633)
 Origin Equality (6331)
 Gender Equality (6332)
 Religious Equality (6333)
 Legitimacy Equality (6334): cf, ro, sp
Prohibition of Privileges (634)
Affirmative Action (635)
 Affirmative Quotas (6351)
 

Chapter IV  Protection (64)

Consumer Protection (641)
Worker Protection (642)
Marriage Protection (643)
Family Protection (644)
Mother Protection (645)
Child Protection (646): cb,
Victims (647)
Right to Asylum (648)
Protection of Stateless Persons (649)
 

Chapter V  Welfare (65)

Minimal Standard of Living (651)
 Lifelihood (6511)
 Welfare Payments (6512)
 Social Security Schemes (6513)
Health Care (652)
Shelter (653)
Education (654)
 Free Public Education (6541)
  Right to Professional Training (6542): ma
Mother Support (655)
Right to a Workplace (656)
 

Chapter VI  Procedure (66)

Recourse to the Courts (661)
 Third Party Standing (6611)
 Constitutional Judge (6612)
 Extraordinary Courts (6613)
Due Process (663)
 Illegal Evidence (6631)
 Examine all Witnesses (6632)
 File Access (6633)
 No Ex Post Facto Law (6634)
 Arrest (6635)
 Seizure (6636)
 Release Period (6637)
 False Imprisonment (6638)
Fair Trial (664)
 Right to Jury Trial (6641)
 Jury in Criminal Trials (6642)
 Speedy Trial (6643)
 Public Trial (6644)
Criminal Justice (665)
 Presumption of Innocence (66501)
 Nulla Poena Sine Lege (66502)
 Deouble Jeopardy (66503)
 Self-Incrimination (66504)
 Miranda Rights (66505)
 Right to Counsel (66506)
 Communication (66507)
 Grand Jury (66508)
 Information of Relatives (66509)
 Prohibition of Extradition (66510)
 Extradition of Criminals (66511)
 Extradition of Slaves (66512)
 

Chapter VII  Restrictions (67)

hr
General Admissibility (671)
 Legitimate State Purposes (6711)
  Rights of Others (67111)
  Constitutional Interest (67112)
  Interest of a Collective (67113)
 Competent Legislation (6712)
 Narrowly Tailored (6713)
 Adequate Means-End Relationship (6714)
 No Infringement on Essentials (6715): cf, er, hr, ks, po, ro, sp
 General Applicability (6716)
 Formal Legislation (6717)
Special Restrictions (672)
 Drugs (6721)
 Firearms (6722)
  Right to Wear Arms (67221)
 Prohibition of Liquors (6723)
State Monopolies (673)
 Heavy Weapons (6731)
 Ultra-Hazardous Materials (6732)
 Coinage and Money (6733)
 Mail (6734)
 Telecommunication (6735)
 Media (6736)
Burdens (674)
 Taxation (6741)
 Expropriation (6742)
 Mandatory Insurance (6743)
Forfeiture of Rights (675)
 Forfeiture of Individual Rights (6751)
 Forfeiture of Party Rights (6752)
Deprivation of Electoral Rights (676)
 Mental Incapacity (6761)
 Imprisonment (6762)
 Race (6763)
 Gender (6764)
 

Chapter VIII  Duties (68)

Civil Service (681)
 Military Duty (6811)
 Surrogate to Military Duty (6812)
 Public Works (6813)
Childrearing (682)
 Support by Parents (6821): cf, hr, ma, mg, sp
 Compulsory Schooling (6822)
 Acknowledged Private Schools (6823)
 Support for Parents (6824)
Compulsory Voting (683): be, fj, pa, po
Duty to Work (684): cf, hr, ku, ma, mg, po, sp, sy
Family Planning (685)
Preservation of Unity (686)

For methodology see: Comparing Constitutions and International Constitutional Law.
© 1994 - May 29th, 2010 / For corrections please contact A. Tschentscher.